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Technical Paper

Investigation of Predictive Models for Application in Engine Cold-Start Behavior

The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.
Technical Paper

Statistical Issues in the Evaluation of the Impact of Sulfur in Diesel Fuel on the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Emission Control Devices

The Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) program is a joint U.S. government/industry program that studies the impact of diesel sulfur levels on four types of emission control systems. One type of system, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), removes particulate matter (PM) from the exhaust stream by collection on a filter. The critical operating issue for DPF technology is the cleaning or regeneration of the control device (by oxidation of the collected PM) to prevent plugging. However, oxidation of sulfur in the exhaust forms sulfates, which are measured as PM. Two types of tests are conducted to evaluate the impacts of fuel sulfur on DPF performance: (1) emissions tests for PM components and gases, and (2) experiments to measure the effect of fuel sulfur on the regeneration temperature required by the filter devices.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Fuel Economy-The CleanFleet Alternative Fuels Project

Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day.
Technical Paper

Fleet Test Using Butane and Propane Mixtures

This paper describes the results of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fleet test conducted using para-transit, medium-duty vehicles. The vehicles were part of an active municipal fleet providing daily service on varying operating routes. Over a period of nine months, each vehicle was fueled with a series of butane/propane mixtures. The mixtures tested were HD5 LPG as the baseline fuel, 20 percent butane/80 percent propane, 30 percent butane/70 percent propane, and a final blend of 50 percent butane/50 percent propane by volume. The test vehicles showed improved fuel economy as the butane content increased in the fuel mixture, even without modification to existing LPG fuel systems. The improved fuel performance was consistent with the higher energy content of butane, compared to an equal volume of propane. The vehicles displayed no symptoms of performance or maintenance problems that would be related to operation of the fuel mixtures.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Emissions Results-CleanFleet Alternative Fuels Project

Vehicle exhaust emissions measurements are reported for full-size panel vans operating on four alternative motor fuels and control gasoline. The emissions tests produced data on in-use vans. The vans were taken directly from commercial delivery service for testing as they accumulated mileage over a 24-month period. The alternative fuels tested were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG). The control gasoline for the emissions tests was an industry average unleaded blend (RF-A). The vehicle technologies tested represent those options available in 1992 that were commercially available from Ford, Chrysler, and Chevrolet or which these manufacturers agreed to provide as test vans for daily use in commercial service by FedEx.