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Technical Paper

Incorporating Weld Residual Stress Effects into Fatigue Life Predictions using the Battelle Structural Stress Method

Welding induced residual stresses are an important factor to consider when evaluating fatigue design of welded automotive parts. Fortunately, design engineers have various residual stress mitigation technologies at their disposal for improving the fatigue performance of these parts. For this purpose, it is essential to understand the relationship between the residual stresses and fatigue performance quantitatively as well as qualitatively. It has been widely accepted that tensile residual stresses in welded structures are as high as the material yield strength level. Therefore, the fatigue strength of welded joints is governed predominantly by the applied stress range, regardless of the load ratio. However, in stress relieved components the tensile residual stress level is not as high, and the weld fatigue behavior is more influenced by the load ratio.
Technical Paper

Application of Weld Fatigue Evaluation Procedure for Considering Multi-Axial Stress States Using the Battelle Structural Stress Method

Even under uniaxial loading, seemingly simple welded joint types can develop multi-axial stress states, which must be considered when evaluating both the fatigue strength and failure location. Based on the investigation of fatigue behavior for the multi-axial stress state, a procedure for fatigue behavior of welded joints with multi-axial stress states was proposed using an effective equivalent structural stress range parameter combined normal and in-plane shear equivalent structural stress ranges and the master S-N curve approach. In automotive structures, fatigue failure is often observed at weld end, which often show a complex stress state. Due to simplified weld end representation having a sharp right-angled weld corner, the fatigue failure prediction at the weld end tends to be overly conservative due to the excessive stress concentration at the right-angled weld termination.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Evaluation Procedure Development for Aluminum Alloy Spot Welds Using the Battelle Structural Stress Method

As the automotive industry seeks to remove weight from vehicle chasses to meet increased fuel economy standards, it is increasingly turning to composites and aluminum. In spite of increasing demands for quality aluminum alloy spot welds that enable more fuel efficient automobiles, fatigue evaluation procedures for such welds are not well-established. This article discusses the results of an evaluation Battelle performed of the fatigue characteristics of aluminum alloy spot welds based on experimental data and observations from the literature. In comparison with spot welds in steel alloys, aluminum alloy spot welds exhibit several significant differences including a different hardness distribution at and around the weld, different fatigue failure modes, and more. The effectiveness and applicability of the Battelle structural stress-based simplified procedure for modeling and simulating automotive spot welds has previously been demonstrated by Battelle investigations.
Journal Article

The Development of a Simplified Spot Weld Model for Battelle Structural Stress Calculation

The nodal force based Battelle structural stress method has shown its mesh insensitivity in the stress analysis of spot welds as well as fusion welds. In the conventional structural stress simulation procedure, the structural stress is calculated at the nodes along the nugget periphery. However, implementing a nugget into each spot weld is cumbersome and time consuming not only in preparing mesh for FE analysis but also in preparing a series of structural stress calculation after finishing the FE analysis. Therefore, the efficiency of the current Battelle structural stress practice for spot welds can be improved significantly for structures with a large number of spot welds. The simplified modeling procedure presented here delivers reliable structural stresses at spot welds and these stresses can then be utilized for fatigue life prediction using a master S-N Curve approach that is applicable to wide range of spot welding techniques.
Journal Article

Fatigue Evaluation of Notched Plate Specimens by the Battelle Structural Stress Method

In this paper, the applicability of the finite element-based, mesh insensitive Battelle structural stress method is demonstrated for fatigue life predictions of notched specimens (non-welded) with different specimen types, and notch shapes. Well-documented notch fatigue data were analyzed using the Battelle structural stress fatigue evaluation procedure, including notched plate fatigue data for steel and aluminum alloys. The effectiveness of the Battelle structural stress procedure has been demonstrated in a series of earlier publications for welded structures with different joint types, plate thicknesses, and loading modes. Here, a similar Battelle structural stress procedure suitable for finite element modeling and service life simulations is proposed for structures with notches. Unlike weld fatigue data, the crack propagation portion of the fatigue life associated with a notch does not always dominant the total number of cycles to failure.
Journal Article

Development of Friction Stir Weld Fatigue Evaluation Procedure Using Battelle Structural Stress Method

Weld fatigue evaluation using the mesh-insensitive Battelle structural stress method has been applied to fusion welds, resistance spot welds and non-welded components. The effectiveness of the Battelle structural stress procedure has been demonstrated in a series of earlier publications for welded structures with different joint types, plate thicknesses, and loading modes. In this paper, a weld fatigue evaluation procedure using the Battelle structural stress method is proposed for friction stir welds currently being used in the automotive and aerospace industries. The applicability of the Battelle structural stress procedure is demonstrated by comparing fatigue life predictions for friction stir welded specimens to well-documented test data from the literature. Different specimen types, plate thicknesses and loading ratios were analyzed for several aluminum alloys.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Evaluation Procedure Development for Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Using the Battelle Structural Stress Method

Lightweight, optimized vehicle designs are paramount in helping the automotive industry meet reduced emissions standards. Self-piercing rivets are a promising new technology that may play a role in optimizing vehicle designs, due to their superior fatigue resistance compared with spot welds and ability to join dissimilar materials. This paper presents a procedure for applying the mesh-insensitive Battelle Structural Stress Method to self-piercing riveted joints for fatigue life prediction. Additionally, this paper also examines the development of an interim fatigue design master S-N curve for self-piercing rivets. The interim fatigue design master S-N curve accounts for factors such as various combinations of similar and dissimilar metal sheets, various sheet thicknesses, stacking sequence, and load ratios. A large amount of published data was collapsed into a single interim S-N curve with reasonable data scattering.