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ARAMiS - Taming Multicores for Safe Transportation

2012-05-17
Multicore processor are well established in classical and tablet personal computers for some year. Such processors use more then one central core for computation and allow to integrate more computational power with smaller costs. However more than 90% of all processors worldwide are not placed in classical IT but are empedded in bigger systems like in modern vehicles or airplanes. Such systems face a very high demand in terms of safety, security an reliability which hinders the use of multicores in such systems. The funded project ARAMiS faces these demands and has the goal to enable the usability of multicore systems in the domains automotive and avionics, as well as later also railway. ARAMiS is the basis for higher traffic safety, traffic efficiency and comfort.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping of Production Vehicle Control Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1657
Developing automotive chassis applications is becoming increasingly complex due to cross-functional system interactions and the inherent safety critical nature of the systems involved. One consequence is the need for a rapid prototyping platform, targeted and tailored to meet the specific needs of the chassis domain. This paper describes an example of such an architecture for a chassis rapid prototyping system incorporating several Infineon TriCore embedded microcontrollers and Emulation Devices (ED), networked together by the Micro Link Interfaces (MLI). It also discusses how using such a development platform can lead to a significant reduction in the overall development time of a production intent chassis system.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustic Measurements in Turbulent Flow on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1551
Aeroacoustics of road vehicles is becoming more and more important as it directly affects the comfort of the passengers. The tests made in the wind tunnel, in low-turbulence flow conditions, show results that are qualitatively different from those measured on the road. To get a better understanding of this, Audi and Pininfarina decided to carry out a test campaign on some cars, both on the road and in the wind tunnel, in various turbulent flow conditions. In the case of road measurements, some typical turbulent flow conditions, like those caused by atmospheric wind and those produced by the traffic, have been investigated. Wind tunnel measurements have been performed both in the base wind tunnel (in Audi and in Pininfarina) and in the presence of turbulent flows generated, in the Pininfarina wind tunnel, by the Turbulence Generator System, already described in previous SAE papers [1,3,5,7].
Technical Paper

Encapsulation of Software-Modules of Safety-Critical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1485
More and more high-level algorithms are emerging to improve the existing systems in a car. Often these algorithms only need a platform with a bus connection and some resources such as CPU time and memory space. These functions can easily be integrated into existing systems that have free resources. This paper describes some encapsulation techniques and mechanisms that can be used in the automotive domain. The discussion also takes into account the additional resources consumed on the microcontroller to meet these requirements and by the software to implement the encapsulation mechanisms. Overviews of some general concepts of software-architectures that provide encapsulation are also shown.
Technical Paper

Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1488
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. The addition of a second microcontroller and the associated support circuitry that is required adds to the overall costs of the ECU, increases the size and creates significant system complexity.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems on a Dual-Core Microcontroller

2007-04-16
2007-01-1486
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. This paper will present a concept which maps the functions of the external monitoring unit into an internal second processing core which are frequently available on modern, 32bit, monolithic, dual-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Testing - Still Necessary!

2007-04-16
2007-01-1768
Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Cancellation at Powertrain Oil Pan

2007-05-15
2007-01-2422
Under city driving conditions, the powertrain represents one of the major vehicle exterior noise sources. Especially at idle and during full load acceleration, the oil pan contributes significantly to the overall powertrain sound emission. The engine oilpan can be a significant contributor to the powertrain radiated sound levels. Passive optimization measures, such as structural optimization and acoustic shielding, can be limited by e.g. light-weight design, package and thermal constraints. Therefore, the potential of the Active Structure Acoustic Control (ASAC) method for noise reduction was investigated within the EU-sponsored project InMAR. The method has proven to have significant noise reduction potential with respect to oil pan vibration induced noise. The paper reports on activities within the InMAR project with regard to a passenger car oil pan application of an ASAC system based on piezo-ceramic foil technology.
Technical Paper

Low fuel consumption and low emissions~Electromechanical valve train in vehicle operation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0018
The electromechanical valve train (EMV) technology allows for a reduction in fuel consumption while operating under a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and preserves the ability to use conventional exhaust gas aftertreatment technology with a 3-way catalyst. Compared with an engine with a camshaft-driven valve train, the variable valve timing concept makes possible an additional optimization of cold start, warm-up and transient operation. In contrast with the conventionally throttled engine, optimized control of load and in-cylinder gas movement can be used for each individual cylinder and engine cycle. A load control strategy using a "Late Intake Valve Open" (LIO) provides a reduction in start-up HC emissions of approximately 60%. Due to reduced wall-wetting, the LIO control strategy improves the transition from start to idle.
Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

2000-06-12
2000-05-0058
The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Endurance and Thermo Cycle Testing for Highly Loaded HSDI Diesel Cylinder Heads

2001-10-01
2001-01-3226
Due to today's demands to reduce cost and product time to market, engineering procedures are increasingly using more sophisticated simulation techniques, instead of validation testing. Early implementation of CAE methods yield higher quality products, even with first prototypes, reducing the design iterations required to reach production quality. The strategy is to conduct specific evaluations of a realistic representation of the product while focusing on the key boundary conditions necessary to extract fatigue effects. Discussed in this paper are adequate CAE methods for early identification, evaluation and removal of conceptual and local structural weaknesses. Possible solutions gained from a computational optimization process are discussed for highly loaded HSDI diesel cylinder heads as a representative example.
Technical Paper

Future Power Plants For Cars

2001-10-01
2001-01-3192
Environmental concern demands that emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles have to improve considerably in the next 10 years. New technologies for gasoline engines, downsizing with high boosting, direct injection and fully variable valve train systems, are being developed. For Diesel engines, improved components including piezobased injectors and particle filters are expected. In the drive train new starter-generator systems as well as automated manual transmissions are being developed. In parallel alternative fuels are investigated and the use of hybrid drives and fuel cells are developed. This paper reports the progress made in the recent years and gives a comparative assessment on the different technologies with a prediction of the introduction dates and volumes into the market.
Technical Paper

A New TEHD Approach for Sophisticated Simulation of Journal Bearings

2001-10-01
2001-01-3367
The new Thermo-Elasto-Hydro-Dynamic (TEHD) code developed by FEV, is designed to improve the predictability of journal bearing designs and thereby increase the reliability of safety factors in the development of highly loaded internal combustion engines. Advanced analysis tools are evaluated by their performance as well as by their ease of use. High performance means on the one hand: taking into account all the important characteristics, like bearing elasticity or cavitation effects, to mention only some major parameters for modern journal bearing analysis. On the other hand: an economic run-time behavior must be a key feature concerning usability of the TEHD-demands for daily development praxis. Ease of use means also, that the TEHD model can easily be used as a plug-in routine of an already existing software package that is well known to the development departments.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Concept for SULEV

2001-03-05
2001-01-1313
Today, SULEV legislation represents the most stringent emission standard for vehicles with combustion engines, and it will be introduced starting by Model Year 2003. In order to meet such standards, even higher effort is required for the development of the exhaust gas emission concept of SI engines. Beyond a facelift of the combustion system, exhaust gas aftertreatment, and the engine management system, new approaches are striven for. The principle keys are well known: low HC feed gas, high thermal load for quick light-off, exhaust system with low heat capacity and highly effective exhaust gas aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell System Air Management Utilizing HIL Tools

2002-03-04
2002-01-0409
In this paper, boosting strategies are investigated for part load operation of typical fuel-cell-systems. The optimal strategy can mainly be obtained by simulation. The boosting strategy is one of the most essential parameters for design and operation of a fuel-cell-system. High pressure ratios enable high power densities, low size and weight. Simultaneously, the demands in humidification and water recovery for today's systems are reduced. But power consumption and design effort of the system increases strongly with the pressure level. Therefore, the main focus must be on the system efficiencies at part load. In addition, certain boundary conditions like the inlet temperature of the fuel-cell stack must be maintained. With high pressure levels the humidification of the intake air before, within or after the compressor is not sufficient to dissipate enough heat. Vaporization during the compression process shows efficiency advantages while the needs in heat dissipation decreases.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Exhaust Valve Opening in a Camless Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0376
Electromechanical valve trains in camless engines enable virtually fully variable valve timing that offers large potential for both part load fuel economy and high low end torque. Based upon the principle of a spring-mass-oscillator, the actuator stores the energy to open and close the valves in springs. However, the motion of the valves and the electromechanical actuation suffers from parasitic losses, such as friction and ohmic resistance. Besides eddy current losses, gas forces obviously play a further important role in the control of exhaust valve opening especially at high engine speeds and loads. Based on engine test bench data, computational simulations (3D CFD, gas exchange process and electromechanical system) are carried out to analyze the effects of exhaust valve gas forces on the dynamic motion of valve and actuator. The modeling approach and results of this investigation are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Fuel Chemistry Impacts on Gasoline HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap and Direct Injection

2007-10-29
2007-01-4105
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has the potential to produce low NOx and low particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing high efficiency. In HCCI combustion, the start of auto-ignition of premixed fuel and air depends on temperature, pressure, concentration history during the compression stroke, and the unique reaction kinetics of the fuel/air mixture. For these reasons, the choice of fuel has a significant impact on both engine design and control strategies. In this paper, ten (10) gasoline-like testing fuels, statistically representative of blends of four blending streams that spanned the ranges of selected fuel properties, were tested in a single cylinder engine equipped with a hydraulic variable valve train (VVT) and gasoline direct injection (GDI) system.
Technical Paper

Combined Particulate Matter and NOx Aftertreatment Systems for Stringent Emission Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-1128
The HSDI Diesel engine contributes substantially to the decrease of fleet fuel consumption thus to the reduction of CO2 emissions. This results in the rising market acceptance which is supported by desirable driving performance as well as greatly improved NVH behavior. In addition to the above mentioned requirements on driving performance, fuel economy and NVH behavior, continuously increasing demands on emissions performance have to be met. From today's view the Diesel particulate trap presents a safe technology to achieve the required reduction of the particle emission of more than 95%. However, according to today's knowledge a further, substantial NOx engine-out emission reduction for the Diesel engine is counteracts with the other goal of reduced fuel consumption. To comply with current and future emission standards, Diesel engines will require DeNOx technologies.
Technical Paper

Vapor Pressures of Diesel Fuel Oxygenate Blends

2002-10-21
2002-01-2850
A gas chromatographic technique was used to determine the vapor pressures of blends of six candidate diesel fuel oxygenates with three diesel fuels at 0, 5, 10, 30, and 100 percent blend levels. Both the oxygenates and the diesel fuels were selected to represent a variety of chemical compositions. The vapor pressures were determined over a range of temperatures from -30 C to +30 C. In each case the fraction of the vapor pressure derived from the oxygenate and the fuel was identified. The vapor pressure results showed that there were significant deviations from ideality, leading to both higher and lower vapor pressures than would be predicted from Raoult's Law. These results are significant for fire safety and evaporative emissions as well as for a more basic understanding of the behavior of these blends. Data were also obtained on the heats of vaporization for each of the blends.
Technical Paper

Oxygenate Compatibility with Diesel Fuels

2002-10-21
2002-01-2848
Miscibility, water tolerance, cloud point, and flash point data are presented for seven candidate diesel fuel oxygenates: dipentyl ether, dibutoxymethane, 2-ethoxyethyl ether, diethyl maleate, tripropylene glycol monomethyl ether, dibutyl maleate, and glycerol tributrate. These oxygenates were blended with three different diesel fuels: an oil sands diesel, an ultra-low sulfur diesel, and a Fischer-Tropsch diesel. Blend levels included 0, 5, 10, 30, and 100 % oxygenate. Properties were measured at temperatures of -30, -15, 0, 15, and 30 C.
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