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Technical Paper

Low fuel consumption and low emissions~Electromechanical valve train in vehicle operation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0018
The electromechanical valve train (EMV) technology allows for a reduction in fuel consumption while operating under a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and preserves the ability to use conventional exhaust gas aftertreatment technology with a 3-way catalyst. Compared with an engine with a camshaft-driven valve train, the variable valve timing concept makes possible an additional optimization of cold start, warm-up and transient operation. In contrast with the conventionally throttled engine, optimized control of load and in-cylinder gas movement can be used for each individual cylinder and engine cycle. A load control strategy using a "Late Intake Valve Open" (LIO) provides a reduction in start-up HC emissions of approximately 60%. Due to reduced wall-wetting, the LIO control strategy improves the transition from start to idle.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Endurance and Thermo Cycle Testing for Highly Loaded HSDI Diesel Cylinder Heads

2001-10-01
2001-01-3226
Due to today's demands to reduce cost and product time to market, engineering procedures are increasingly using more sophisticated simulation techniques, instead of validation testing. Early implementation of CAE methods yield higher quality products, even with first prototypes, reducing the design iterations required to reach production quality. The strategy is to conduct specific evaluations of a realistic representation of the product while focusing on the key boundary conditions necessary to extract fatigue effects. Discussed in this paper are adequate CAE methods for early identification, evaluation and removal of conceptual and local structural weaknesses. Possible solutions gained from a computational optimization process are discussed for highly loaded HSDI diesel cylinder heads as a representative example.
Technical Paper

Future Power Plants For Cars

2001-10-01
2001-01-3192
Environmental concern demands that emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles have to improve considerably in the next 10 years. New technologies for gasoline engines, downsizing with high boosting, direct injection and fully variable valve train systems, are being developed. For Diesel engines, improved components including piezobased injectors and particle filters are expected. In the drive train new starter-generator systems as well as automated manual transmissions are being developed. In parallel alternative fuels are investigated and the use of hybrid drives and fuel cells are developed. This paper reports the progress made in the recent years and gives a comparative assessment on the different technologies with a prediction of the introduction dates and volumes into the market.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Exhaust Valve Opening in a Camless Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0376
Electromechanical valve trains in camless engines enable virtually fully variable valve timing that offers large potential for both part load fuel economy and high low end torque. Based upon the principle of a spring-mass-oscillator, the actuator stores the energy to open and close the valves in springs. However, the motion of the valves and the electromechanical actuation suffers from parasitic losses, such as friction and ohmic resistance. Besides eddy current losses, gas forces obviously play a further important role in the control of exhaust valve opening especially at high engine speeds and loads. Based on engine test bench data, computational simulations (3D CFD, gas exchange process and electromechanical system) are carried out to analyze the effects of exhaust valve gas forces on the dynamic motion of valve and actuator. The modeling approach and results of this investigation are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Combined Particulate Matter and NOx Aftertreatment Systems for Stringent Emission Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-1128
The HSDI Diesel engine contributes substantially to the decrease of fleet fuel consumption thus to the reduction of CO2 emissions. This results in the rising market acceptance which is supported by desirable driving performance as well as greatly improved NVH behavior. In addition to the above mentioned requirements on driving performance, fuel economy and NVH behavior, continuously increasing demands on emissions performance have to be met. From today's view the Diesel particulate trap presents a safe technology to achieve the required reduction of the particle emission of more than 95%. However, according to today's knowledge a further, substantial NOx engine-out emission reduction for the Diesel engine is counteracts with the other goal of reduced fuel consumption. To comply with current and future emission standards, Diesel engines will require DeNOx technologies.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Variable Valve Actuation and Direct Injection

2002-03-04
2002-01-0706
The main goal in the development of new automobile SI engines is to significantly reduce fuel consumption. To this end both, variable valve actuation and direct gasoline injection, are being pursued as new engine concepts. Both approaches appear to offer approximately the same potential to reduce fuel consumption. The development so far is creating the impression of two competing technical concepts with no obvious way to combine them [1]. The two engine concepts, however, can be combined, although it is often objected that their combination would only yield marginal additional potential. That is true to the extent that the advantages of dethrottling offered by both of the concepts can only be counted once in terms of overall potential. But there is a number of additional effects to be taken into account. This Paper represents an analysis of the individual potential of the two approaches as well as an estimation of their combined potential.
Technical Paper

Variable Compression Ratio - A Design Solution for Fuel Economy Concepts

2002-03-04
2002-01-1103
The challenge to reduce fuel consumption in S.I. engines is leading to the application of new series production technologies: including direct injection and, recently, the variable valve train, both aiming at unthrottled engine operation. In addition to these technologies, turbo- or mechanical supercharging is of increasing interest because, in principle, it offers a significant potential for improved fuel economy. However, a fixed compression ratio normally leads to a compromise, in that the charged engine is more of a performance enhancement than an improver of fuel economy. Fuel efficient downsizing concepts can be realized through the application of variable compression ratio. In this paper, a variable compression ratio design solution featuring eccentric movement of the crankshaft is described. Special attention is given to the integration of this solution into the base engine.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

2003-06-23
2003-01-2264
Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

A Capacity Oriented Quality Assurance Method by Using Modular Containerized Test Cells

2002-11-19
2002-01-3456
The requirements for diesel and gasoline engines are continuously increasing with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and durability. Besides the engine development process the quality of the production engine itself has to be ensured. This paper discusses alternative philosophies and approaches in terms of the quality management process. Based on a detailed analysis of the required equipment advanced solutions are presented. Modular containerized test cells are described being equipped exactly to the current testing task ready to use in low infrastructure. The testing capacity of the facility can be adjusted to the actual production volume by simply removing or adding modular test cells. Thus, at every facility the testing tasks can be executed successfully and the investment can be kept low.
Technical Paper

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0510
The aggressive reduction of future diesel engine NOx emission limits forces the heavy- and light-duty diesel engine manufacturers to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. As a result, different exhaust emission control technologies applicable to NOx have been the subject of many investigations. One of these systems is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which has shown high NOx conversion rates during previous investigations with acceptable fuel consumption penalties. In addition, the NOx adsorber catalyst does not require a secondary on-board reductant. However, the NOx adsorber catalyst also represents the most sulfur sensitive emissions control device currently under investigation for advanced NOx control. To remove the sulfur introduced into the system through the diesel fuel and stored on the catalyst sites during operation, specific regeneration strategies and boundary conditions were investigated and developed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Heat Recovery System for Modern Cars

2001-03-05
2001-01-1020
The fuel consumption and the emissions of modern passenger cars are highly affected by the fluid and material temperatures of the engine. Unfortunately, the high thermal efficiencies of Direct Injection (DI) Diesel and Spark Ignition (SI) engines cause in many driving situations low heat transfer to the engine components and especially to the oil and the coolant. In these conditions the normal operating temperatures are not achieved. Especially at low ambient temperatures and low engine loads the requirement of a comfortable cabin heating and a fast warm-up of engine oil and coolant cannot be satisfied simultaneously. To reach the required warm-up performance, an Exhaust Heat Recovery System (EHRS) will be demonstrated. Further design and optimization processes for modern cooling systems in fuel-efficient engines require numerical and experimental investigations of supplemental heater systems to meet all requirements under all circumstances.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Empirical Methods for Optimization of Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion

2001-03-05
2001-01-0569
Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Natural Gas Engine with Common-Rail Micro-Pilot Injection

2000-08-21
2000-01-3080
In the recent years, it has become obvious that one of the main fields of interest in alternate fuels is the public transportation sector. Natural Gas seems to be advantageous. It is available and environmentally friendly, even if the greenhouse effect of methane is considered. The operation range of vehicles running on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is poor due to the large pressure vessels, but in case of urban buses with low daily mileage this is acceptable. On the other hand, the use of an environmentally friendly fuel is favorable especially in urban areas. Although there are some advantages of Natural Gas, diesel buses dominate the market. The reason is the better part-load fuel efficiency of the Diesel principle which is superior to the Otto-cycle due to the absence of engine throttling. The efficiency levels of Spark-Ignition (SI) -type, Lean Burn Natural Gas engines are quite comparable to diesel engines during full load conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Particle Size Distribution in the Cylinder of a Common Rail DI Diesel Engine During Combustion and Expansion

2000-06-19
2000-01-1999
In the recent years diesel engine developers and manufacturers achieved a great progress in reducing the most important diesel engine pollutants, NOX and particulates. But nevertheless big efforts in diesel engine development are necessary to meet with the more stringent future emission regulations. To improve the knowledge about particle formation and emission an insight in the cylinder is necessary. By using the fast gas sampling technique samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the soot particle size distribution and the particle mass. The particle size distribution was measured by a conventional SMPS. Under steady state conditions the influence of aromatic and oxygen content in the fuel on in-cylinder particle size distribution and particle mass inside a modern 4V-CR-DI-diesel-engine were determined. After injection and ignition, mainly small soot particles were formed which grow and in the later combustion phase coagulate.
Technical Paper

Applying Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) with Special Emphasis on Pollutant Formation to Simulate a DI Diesel Engine with Roof-Shaped Combustion Chamber and Tumble Charge Motion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0167
Combustion and pollutant formation in a new recently introduced Common-Rail DI Diesel engine concept with roof-shaped combustion chamber and tumble charge motion are numerically investigated using the Representative Interactive Flamelet concept (RIF). A reference case with a cup shaped piston bowl for full load operating conditions is considered in detail. In addition to the reference case, three more cases are investigated with a variation of start of injection (SOI). A surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. The underlying complete reaction mechanism comprises 506 elementary reactions and 118 chemical species. Special emphasis is put on pollutant formation, in particular on the formation of NOx, where a new technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation within the flamelet framework is applied.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Start Noise Improvement

2005-05-16
2005-01-2490
The European as well as U.S. market share of modern Diesel engines has increased significantly in recent years, due to their excellent torque and performance behavior combined with low fuel consumption. The overall improved noise and vibration behavior of modern Diesel engines has also contributed to this trend. Despite overall improvements in Diesel engine noise and vibration, certain aspects of Diesel engines continue to present significant challenges. One such issue is the presence of Diesel knocking that is prevalent during cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper discusses a technique used to optimize the cold start noise behavior of modern Diesel engines. The methods used in this study are based on optimizing the engine calibration to improve the vehicle interior and exterior (engine) noise, even at low ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

2005-05-16
2005-01-2514
The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0232
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper

Potential of the Spray-guided Combustion System in Combination with Turbocharging

2008-04-14
2008-01-0139
Based on the TurboDISI engine presented earlier [1], [2], a new Spray Guided Turbo (SGT) concept with enhanced engine performance was developed. The turbocharged engine was modified towards utilizing a spray-guided combustion system with a central piezo injector location. Higher specific power and torque levels were achieved by applying specific design and cooling solutions. The engine was developed utilizing a state-of-the-art newly developed charge motion design (CMD) process in combination with single cylinder investigations. The engine control unit has a modular basis and is realized using rapid prototyping hardware. Additional fuel consumption potentials can be achieved with high load EGR, use of alternative fuels and a hybrid powertrain. The CO2 targets of the EU (120 g/km by 2012 in the NEDC) can be obtained with a mid-size vehicle applying the technologies presented within this paper.
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