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Technical Paper

Flexible Body Dynamic Simulation of a Large Mining Truck

A three dimensional mathematical model of a Caterpillar mining truck has been developed to simulate transient structural deformation and suspension response of a large mining truck traversing a known rough terrain course. The model incorporates compliant (finite element) representations of the truck frame, dump body, and rear axle housing into a dynamic mechanical system simulation model. Model results - frame acceleration, axle housing elastic deformation, and suspension response (strut pressures and displacements) are correlated with measured data from an instrumented truck traversing the steel speed bump portion of the rough terrain course. Results demonstrate that complex truck behavior can be simulated by combining finite element and mechanical system simulations.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Production Qualified Catalytic Converter

Catalytic converters have become a viable aftertreatment system for reducing emissions from on-highway diesel engines. This paper addresses the development and production qualification of a catalytic converter. The testing programs that were utilized to qualify the converter system for production included emissions performance, emissions durability, physical durability, and field test programs. This paper reports on the specific tests that were utilized for the emissions performance and emissions durability testing programs. An explanation on the development of an accelerated durability test program is also included. The physical durability section of the paper discusses the development and execution of laboratory bench tests to insure the catalytic converter/muffler maintains acceptable physical integrity.
Technical Paper

Engine Electronics Technology

Electronics technology has evolved significantly since the first electronically controlled heavy duty on-highway truck engines were introduced in the mid 1980's. Engine control hardware, software, and sensor designs have been driven by many factors. Emissions regulations, fuel economy, engine performance, operator features, fleet management information, diagnostics, vehicle integration, reliability, and new electronics technology are some of those factors. The latest engine electronics technology is not only found in heavy duty on-highway trucks, but in off-highway applications as well. Track-type tractors, haul trucks, wheel loaders, and agricultural tractors now benefit from the advantages of electronic engines. And, many more new applications are being developed.
Technical Paper

Payload Measurement System on Off-Highway Trucks for Mine Applications

The need to accurately measure and record the payload of large off-highway mining trucks was identified by The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. (BHP). In response. Caterpillar designed and developed a system to fufill that need. The payload carried by mine haul trucks has a strong influence on production rates and costs. The system developed should enable payloads to be much better controlled than has been previously possible. The system also provides a number of mine management features. The development of the system is described from the concept stage to the production stage. Final production capabilities of the microprocessor based system are described. Payload measurement capabilities, diagnostic capabilities, data storage, and data extraction methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

The Artificial Intelligence Application Strategy in Powertrain and Machine Control

The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
Technical Paper

Extreme Field Test for Organic Additive Coolant Technology

Field testing of an extended life coolant technology in Class 8 trucks, equipped with Caterpillar C-12 engines revealed excellent coolant life with negligible inhibitor depletion to 400,000 miles with no refortification and no coolant top-off. In separate evaluations in Caterpillar 3406E equipped trucks, extended corrosion protection and component durability were established out to 700,000 miles, without the need for refortification other than top-off.
Technical Paper

Combustion Development of the New International® 6.0L V8 Diesel Engine

International has developed a new generation 6.0L V8 DI diesel engine for the Ford F-Series full size pick-up trucks. This new engine features a number of state-of-the-art technologies designed to meet the US 2004 heavy-duty engine emission legislation and other requirements from the customers. A set of combustion development strategies was created. They were, the use of cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to inhibit NOx formation, a centrally located nozzle and an optimized combustion bowl to improve fuel distribution and reduce soot formation, the use of increased injection pressure to enhance air/fuel mixing and increase soot oxidation rate, and a Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) to provide sufficient air/fuel ratio over a broad speed range. The combustion development took full advantage of the “virtual lab” tools.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Flow-Field Around a Generic Tractor-Trailer Truck

In the present work computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow field around a generic tractor-trailer truck are presented and compared with corresponding experimental measurements. A generic truck model was considered which is a detailed 1/8th scale replica of a Class-8 tractor-trailer truck. It contained a number of details such as bumpers, underbody, tractor chassis, wheels, and axles. CFD simulations were conducted with wind incident on the vehicle at 0 and 6 degree yaw. Two different meshing strategies (tet-dominant and hex-dominant) and three different turbulence models (Realizable k-ε, RNG k-ε, and DES) are considered. In the first meshing strategy an unstructured tetrahedral mesh was created over a large region surrounding the vehicle and in its wake. In the second strategy the mesh was predominantly hexahedral except for a few narrow regions around the front end and the underbody which were meshed with tetrahedral cells owing to complex topology.
Technical Paper

Systems Engineering Approach for Vehicle Specification

This paper discusses a practical use of the Systems Engineering Process as it is implemented in a Truck OEM. The process presented is focused on the Electrical and Electronics area, but can be applied to other systems on the vehicle and to the vehicle level requirements. Systems Engineering rationale is summarized based upon historical impacts and the application of Systems Engineering to address those impacts. Prior System Development Processes are reviewed in light of modern Systems Engineering approaches, leading to the synthesis of the Systems Engineering Documentation Set for the Vehicle and the Vehicle's Electrical and Electronic Systems. The analysis for this approach looks at the application of Systems Engineering Principles throughout the lifecycle of the vehicle, going beyond the boundaries of traditional requirements gathering and analysis.
Technical Paper

The Shift from a Component-based to a Systems Engineering Approach for Electrical and Electronic Product Engineering at International Truck and Engine Corporation

This paper discusses the guiding philosophy, industry standards, and process and organizational elements utilized by International to shift to a systems engineering approach, within a ‘pull-through’ supply structure. The importance of requirements management in systems engineering, and associated methods are also discussed. The paper also highlights tools and techniques that support systems engineering. Additionally, the benefits of systems engineering are contrasted with the consequences of component-centric product engineering.
Technical Paper

Application of Catalytic Converters to the Caterpillar 785 Off-Highway Truck

Catalytic converters have been developed to reduce diesel engine emissions to aid in meeting the 1994 EPA on-highway standards for heavy duty (above 8,500 pound gross vehicle weight) trucks. As converters are made available for on-highway applications, questions inevitably arise as to their applicability to larger off-highway equipment. This paper covers the application of catalytic converters to a Caterpillar 785 off-highway truck operating in a diamond mine in Siberia. Targeted emissions for this application were unburned hydrocarbons (HC) (especially aldehydes), and carbon monoxide (CO). Experience from the on-highway converter development indicated oxidation catalysts could reduce these emissions. This paper addresses the development and selection of a catalytic converter for the 785 truck. Tradeoffs of vehicle modifications vs. catalytic converter performance and design are discussed.