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Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

1998-04-08
981502
Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

1998-02-01
980076
A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Machinability of As-Compacted P/M Parts: Effect of Material Chemistry

1998-02-23
980635
Since the advent of P/M technology as a near net shape production process, millions of mechanical components of various shapes and sizes have been produced. Although P/M continues to be one of the fast growing shaping processes, it suffers from the inability to produce intricate geometry's such as internal tapers, threads or recesses perpendicular to pressing direction. In such cases application of machining as a secondary forming operation becomes the preferred alternative. However, machining of P/M parts due to their inherent porosity is known to decrease tool life and increase tool chatter and vibration. Consequently, several attempts have been made to improve the machinability of P/M materials by either addition of machinability enhancing elements such as sulfur, calcium, tellurium, selenium, etc., or by resin impregnation of P/M parts.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Production Qualified Catalytic Converter

1993-03-01
930133
Catalytic converters have become a viable aftertreatment system for reducing emissions from on-highway diesel engines. This paper addresses the development and production qualification of a catalytic converter. The testing programs that were utilized to qualify the converter system for production included emissions performance, emissions durability, physical durability, and field test programs. This paper reports on the specific tests that were utilized for the emissions performance and emissions durability testing programs. An explanation on the development of an accelerated durability test program is also included. The physical durability section of the paper discusses the development and execution of laboratory bench tests to insure the catalytic converter/muffler maintains acceptable physical integrity.
Technical Paper

Payload Measurement System on Off-Highway Trucks for Mine Applications

1987-11-08
871200
The need to accurately measure and record the payload of large off-highway mining trucks was identified by The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. (BHP). In response. Caterpillar designed and developed a system to fufill that need. The payload carried by mine haul trucks has a strong influence on production rates and costs. The system developed should enable payloads to be much better controlled than has been previously possible. The system also provides a number of mine management features. The development of the system is described from the concept stage to the production stage. Final production capabilities of the microprocessor based system are described. Payload measurement capabilities, diagnostic capabilities, data storage, and data extraction methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0033
Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar’s Autonomous Journey - The Argument for Autonomy

2016-09-27
2016-01-8005
Today’s business climate and economy demand new, innovative strategies from the initial kickoff of research and development - to the mining of ore from the earth - to the final inspection of a finished product in a mid-western factory. From startup companies with two employees to the largest companies, the world faces new and challenging requirements every day. The demands from companies, customers, executives, and shareholders continue to drive for higher outputs with more efficient use of personnel and investments. Fortunately, the rate of technology continues to exponentially accelerate, which allows those at the cutting edge of technology to capitalize. Caterpillar has been a pioneer in advanced technology since its inception and has been developing the foundation for autonomy over the past four decades.
Technical Paper

Initiating a Values Based Culture at Track-Type Tractors Division of Caterpillar Inc.

1999-03-01
1999-01-0250
During the early 1990s, the Track-Type Tractors Division (TTTD) of Caterpillar Inc. experienced several challenges. The Division faced increasing global competition in the midst of an economic recession. Although intense plant modernization and reorganization occurred in the five previous years, the business unit was not profitable. In 1993, Track-Type Tractors Division instituted its solution -- a change in its culture. Previously, the culture hindered the division’s ability to move forward. This was revealed in a 1992 review detailing the major obstacles inhibiting management from achieving divisional goals. The division leaders recognized that a change in business philosophy, as opposed to further plant modernization, was required to achieve production goals and stay globally competitive.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Product Configurators in Service Parts and Aftermarket Applications

2001-11-12
2001-01-2752
Product configurators are employed to select and spread bills of material for production builds. Service parts and aftermarket parts typically do not participate in the product configuration process. It is assumed that service parts are identical to, or directly related to, the parts used in production. This is not always the case. Often service requires a bill of material that differs significantly from the production bill - most commonly when customers request add on features at the dealership. Requests for add on features may occur soon after the delivery of a newly built vehicle to a dealer or any point in the operational life of the vehicle. There is an opportunity to leverage production order coding and product configuration processes to support the product after production build. Products with significant complexity and variation may benefit from a ‘service configuration’ process in addition to the ‘production configuration’ process.
Technical Paper

Reduction of the Environmental Impact of Essential Manufacturing Processes

1999-03-01
1999-01-0355
The drive of Design for the Environment is to reduce the environmental impact of both design and manufacturing processes. The most frequent method recommended is to substitute better materials and processes. However, there are processes that will continue to have undesirable environmental impacts due to the lack of knowledge of better methods. These processes are critical to manufacturing of products and can not be eliminated. All possible substitutions appear to have worse impacts. This paper explores modeling these processes and imposing a control method which permits an improvement of the environmental impact.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2005-04-11
2005-01-0970
Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

2002-11-18
2002-01-3086
Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Journal Article

Reduction of Steady-State CFD HVAC Simulations into a Fully Transient Lumped Parameter Network

2014-05-10
2014-01-9121
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
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