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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Measuring Diesel Emissions with a Split Exhaust Configuration

2001-05-07
2001-01-1949
West Virginia University evaluated diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and lean-NOX catalysts as part of Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) project. In order to perform thermal aging of the DOC and lean-NOX catalysts simultaneously and economically, each catalyst was sized to accommodate half of the engine exhaust flow. Simultaneous catalyst aging was then achieved by splitting the engine exhaust into two streams such that approximately half of the total exhaust flowed through the DOC and half through the lean-NOX catalyst. This necessitated splitting the engine exhaust into two streams during emissions measurements. Throttling valves installed in each branch of the split exhaust were adjusted so that approximately half the engine exhaust passed though the active catalyst under evaluation and into a full flow dilution tunnel for emissions measurement.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Fourth Generation Hybrid Electric Vehicle at West Virginia University

2001-03-05
2001-01-0682
As a part of the FutureTruck 2000 advanced technology student vehicle competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and General Motors, West Virginia University has converted a full-size sport utility vehicle into a high fuel efficiency, low emissions vehicle. The environmental impact of the Chevrolet Suburban SUV, in terms of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust emissions, was reduced through hybridization without losing any of the functionality and utility of the base vehicle. The approach taken was one of using a high efficiency, state-of-the-art direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a high output electric traction motor for power assist and to recover regenerative braking energy. The vehicle employs a state-of-the-art combination lean NOx catalyst, oxidation catalyst and particulate filter to ensure low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

The Coaxial Cavity Resonator as a RF IC Engine Ignition Source

2001-03-05
2001-01-0987
The Quarter Wave Coaxial Cavity Resonator (QWCCR) plasma igniter is designed, from previous theoretical work, as an ignition source for an internal combustion engine. The present research has explored the implementation of the QWCCR into an internal combustion (IC) engine. The QWCCR design parameters of inner conductor length, loop geometry, and loop position were varied for two igniters of differing operating frequency. Variations of the QWCCR radio frequency (RF) parameters, as a function of engine geometry, were studied by placing the igniter in a combustion chamber and manually varying the crank position. Three identical igniters were fitted with dielectric inserts and the parameters were studied before and after ignition was sustained in a twin-cylinder engine. Optimal resonator geometries were determined. Radio frequency parameter invariance was found with respect to crank angle and piston distance. The first successful IC engine ignition using a QWCCR was achieved.
Technical Paper

Knock Prediction in Reciprocating Gas-Engines Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2001-03-05
2001-01-1012
Two and three-dimensional test cases were simulated using a detailed kinetic mechanism for di-methyl ether to represent methane combustion. A piston-bowl assembly for the compression and expansion strokes with combustion has been simulated at 1500 RPM. A fine grid was used for the 2-D simulations and a rather coarse grid was used for the 3-D calculations together with a k-ε subgrid-scale turbulence model and a partially stirred reactor model with three time scales. Ignition was simulated artificially by increasing the temperature at one point inside the cylinder. The results of these simulations were compared with experimental results. The simulation involved an engine with a homogeneous charge of methane as fuel. Results indicate that pressure fluctuations were captured some time after the ignition started, which indicates knock conditions.
Technical Paper

NVH Variations in Diesel Engine Populations

2003-05-05
2003-01-1723
Customer feedback indicated that there was a difference in noise levels and frequency content between nominally identical diesel engines manufactured in two different plants. A test program was created to determine whether this perceived difference was real. This program opened the opportunity to investigate several levels of variability in SAE J-1074 noise measurements. From the data, estimates of confidence intervals were developed to predict true mean noise levels in the presence of back-to-back, install-test-remove, and sample-to-sample test variability. The data from this project can be used to estimate the number of tests required in order to achieve a given level of accuracy in estimating the true mean noise level of an engine or of an engine population. The results can also be used to design a test program that will provide a given level of confidence in determining whether there is a statistically significant difference between two engine populations.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Approach to Modeling the Dynamics Response of Rubber-Belted Tractor

1997-04-01
971563
This research project investigates the feasibility of using a commercial finite element code to capture the dynamic response of a typical rubber-belted tractor for agricultural applications. The investigation focused on one of Caterpillar Inc.'s Ag Challenger Series tractors. A feasibility study concluded that Abaqus/Explicit [1], a finite element code utilizing the explicit scheme, had the desirable features needed to develop such a large-scale tractor model. These features include an efficient time integration scheme, three-dimensional generalized multiple contacts, and nonlinear material characterization. The fully-assembled tractor model was successful in simulating the forward motion. A preliminary validation indicated that the tractor model was able to predict a trend which was observed in field tests accurately.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Convergence of Laboratory Simulation Test Systems

1998-02-23
981018
Laboratory Simulation Testing is widely accepted as an effective tool for validation of automotive designs. In a simulation test, response data are measured whilst a vehicle is in service or tested at a proving ground. These responses are reproduced in the laboratory by mounting the vehicle or a subassembly of the vehicle in a test rig and applying force and displacements by servo hydraulic actuators. The data required as an input to the servo hydraulics, the drive files, are determined by an iterative procedure which overcomes the non linearity in the test specimen and the test rig system. Under certain circumstances, the iteration does not converge, converges too slowly or converges and then diverges. This paper uses mathematical and computer models in a study of the reasons why systems fail to convergence and makes recommendations about the management of the simulation test.
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