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An Experimental Analysis on Diesel/n-Butanol Blends Operating in Partial Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Piezoelectric Flapping Wing Micro-Air-Vehicles Propulsion

The flapping flight is advantageous for its superior maneuverability and much more aerodynamically efficiency for the small size UAV when compared to the conventional steady-state aerodynamics solution. Especially, it is appropriate for the Micro-air-vehicle (MAV) propulsion system, where the flapping wings can generate the required thrust. This paper investigated such solution, based on the piezoelectric patches, which are attached to the flexible plates, in combination with an appropriate amplification mechanisms. The numerical and experimental flow analyses have been carried out for the piezoelectric flapping plate, in order to characterize the fluid structure interaction induced by the swinging movement of the oscillating plate.
Technical Paper

Does European Type Approval Procedure Encourage the Diffusion of Hybrid and Other Low Emission Vehicles?

European Type approval procedure defines a synthetic driving cycle (the NEDC) over which one vehicle per type has to be tested. Euro 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 differ (beside vehicle preconditioning and warm-up procedures introduced since Euro 3) only because limits for the different pollutants have been progressively lowered. This paper analyses through a number of experimental tests on spark-ignition cars, a hybrid and a conventional vehicle, the driving conditions responsible for most of the emissions and assesses how such conditions are reproduced by the type approval test. The engine conditions mostly responsible for emissions are: warm-up phase, full loads and transients. Only the warm-up is well covered by the NEDC for vehicles with more than 35 kW/ton power-weight ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analyses for the Characterization of the Cyclic Dispersion and Knock Occurrence in a Small-Size SI Engine

In this paper, an experimental and numerical analysis of combustion process and knock occurrence in a small displacement spark-ignition engine is presented. A wide experimental campaign is preliminarily carried out in order to fully characterize the engine behavior in different operating conditions. In particular, the acquisition of a large number of consecutive pressure cycle is realized to analyze the Cyclic Variability (CV) effects in terms of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Coefficient of Variation (CoV). The spark advance is also changed up to incipient knocking conditions, basing on a proper definition of a knock index. The latter is estimated through the decomposition and the FFT analysis of the instantaneous pressure cycles. Contemporary, a quasi-dimensional combustion and knock model, included within a whole engine one-dimensional (1D) modeling framework, are developed. Combustion and knock models are extended to include the CV effects, too.
Technical Paper

Engine Performances and Emissions of Second-Generation Biofuels in Spark Ignition Engines: The Case of Methyl and Ethyl Valerates

As an alternative to second generation ethanol, valeric esters can be produced from lignocellulose through levulinic acid. While some data on these fuels are available, only few experiments have been performed to analyze their combustion characteristics under engine conditions. Using a traditional spark ignition engine converted to mono-cylinder operation, we have investigated the engine performances and emissions of methyl and ethyl valerates. This paper compares the experimental results for pure valeric esters and for blends of 20% of esters in PRF95, with PRF95 as the reference fuel. The esters propagate faster than PRF95 which requires a slight change of ignition timing to optimise the work output. However, both the performances and the emissions are not significantly changed compared to the reference. Accordingly, methyl and ethyl valerate represent very good alternatives as biofuels for SI engines.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol-Gasoline Port Injected on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Turbocharged SI Engine

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on a flexible port dual fuel injection using different ethanol to gasoline mass fractions. A four stroke, two cylinder turbocharged SI engine was used for the experiments. The engine speed was set at 3000 rpm, tests were carried out at medium-high load and two air-fuel-ratio. The initial reference conditions were set running the engine, fueled with full gasoline at the KLSA boundary, in accordance with the standard ECU engine map. This engine point was representative of a rich mixture (λ=0.9) in order to control the knock and the temperature at turbine inlet. The investigated fuels included different ethanol-gasoline mass fractions (E10, E20, E30 and E85), supplied by dual injection within the intake manifold. A spark timing sweep, both at stoichiometric and lean (λ=1.1) conditions, up to the most advanced one without knock was carried out.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the PIONA and oxygenate composition of unconventional fuels with the Pseudo-Component Property Estimation (PCPE) method. Application to an Automotive Shredder Residues-derived gasoline

To check if an unconventional fuel can be burned in an engine, monitoring the stability in terms of composition is mandatory. When the composition of a conventional fuel cannot be measured for practical reason, it can be approximated using the API (American Petroleum Institute) relations (Riazi-Daubert) linking the hydrocarbon group fractions with well-chosen properties. These relations cover only the paraffin (coupling iso and normal), naphthene and aromatic (PNA) groups as they were developed for conventional fuels presenting neglected amounts of olefins and oxygenates. Olefins and oxygenates can be present in unconventional fuels. This paper presents a methodology applicable to any unconventional fuel to build a model to estimate the n-paraffin, iso-paraffin, olefin, naphthene, aromatic and oxygenate (PIONAOx) composition. The current model was demonstrated for an automotive shredder residues (ASR)-derived gasoline-like fuel (GLF).
Journal Article

Generation of Turbulence in a RCEM towards Engine Relevant Conditions for Premixed Combustion Based on CFD and PIV Investigations

The interaction of turbulent premixed methane combustion with the surrounding flow field can be studied using optically accessible test rigs such as a rapid compression expansion machine (RCEM). The high flexibility offered by such a test rig allows its operation at various thermochemical conditions at ignition. However, limitations inherent to such test rigs due to the absence of an intake stroke do not allow turbulence production as found in IC-engines. Hence, means to introduce turbulence need to be implemented and the relevant turbulence quantities have to be identified in order to enable comparability with engine relevant conditions. A dedicated high-pressure direct injection of air at the beginning of the compression phase is considered as a measure to generate adjustable turbulence intensities at spark timing and during the early flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Mixture Formation in a HDDI Diesel Engine With Different Combustion Chamber Geometries

One of the most important phases in the development of direct-injected diesel engines is the optimization of the fuel spray evolution within the combustion chamber, since it strongly influences both the engine performance and the pollutant emissions. Aim of the present paper is to provide information about mixture formation within the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty direct injection (HDDI) diesel engine for marine applications. Spray evolution, in terms of tip penetration, is at first investigated under quiescent conditions, both experimentally and numerically, injecting the fuel in a vessel under ambient temperature and controlled gas back-pressure. Results of penetration and images of the spray from the optically accessible high-pressure vessel are used to investigate the capabilities of some state-of-the-art spray models within the STAR-CD software in correctly capturing spray shape and propagation.
Technical Paper

Fast Road Area Detection Using Planefitting

The paper presents an integrated software tool for the hydroplaning simulation based on a weak coupled fluid-structure interaction model. The integrated modules are a flow solver FINE™/Hexa designed to solve the complex two-phase flow surrounding the tire numerically, based on unstructured hexahedral grids, the FEM solver MSC.Marc/MSC.Mentat which predicts the transients of the tire's structure, a coupling module for efficient and accurate transfer of the essential variables between the flow and FEM solvers and a deformation module which handles the CFD unstructured mesh to match the external surface of the tire. The accuracy of each module and the robustness of the integrated software are validated by the computational results obtained for rigid and deformable tires over a large range of speeds.
Technical Paper

Particulate Measurement by Simultaneous Polychromatic Scattering and Extinction Coefficients

A chemical and physical characterization of particulate emitted in undiluted exhaust of single cylinder direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was made by an optical technique. On-line scattering and extinction measurements in the spectral range from 200 to 500nm were carried out in the exhaust ofthe engine operating under steady-state conditions. These measurements provided a useful tool for the comprehension of chemical and physical structure of the particulate. They allowed the evaluation in real time of the size, the concentration and also the optical properties. Preliminary results of size and mass concentration of particulate are presented. A good agreement was observed comparing the results with those obtained by gravimetric measurements, TEM and X-ray diffraction. HIGH EFFICENCY OF DIESEL ENGINES and their ability to burn heavy fuels make them ofgreat interest in the transportation field.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Measurements by LDA and Numerical Simulation by KIVA-II Code

The fluid-mechanic behaviour of straight-sided and re-entrant chamber geometries has been studied using laser doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. Measurements have been carried out during the compression stroke in a direct injection diesel engine, representative of medium size family, operating at 1000 rpm under motored conditions. The mean motion and turbulence intensity have been computed using a filtering procedure on the LDA data. Using the second version of KIVA code, the air flow field evolution during the same crank angle period has been also computed. To perform proper comparisons between measured and computed values of mean velocity and turbulence intensity, a careful choice of the initial conditions for computations has been performed. Reasonable agreement has been found between computed and measured mean swirl velocities for both combustion chamber geometries tested. On the contrary, the computed turbulence intensities underestimate those measured.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Diesel Air Fuel Mixing

The air fuel mixing process of a small direct injection (d.i.) diesel engine, equipped with two different re-entrant combustion chambers and two nozzles having unlike spray angles, has been studied by integrated use of in-cylinder laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements, engine tests, and KIVA simulations. The LDV measurements have been carried out in an engine with optical access motored at 2200 rpm. The engine tests have been performed on a similar engine at the same speed, at fixed start of combustion, and different air-fuel ratio. The KIVA-II simulations have been made using as initial conditions the parameters determined by LDV and engine tests. The re-entrant bowl with higher levels of air velocity and turbulent kinetic energy at the time of injection gives the best performance. The nozzle having a spray angle of 150° which injects the fuel into the regions at higher turbulent kinetic energy lowers the smoke emission levels.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Assessment of k-ε Turbulence Model in KIVA-II by In-Cylinder LDV Measurements

In-cylinder measurements of turbulent integral length scales, carried out during the last 60 degrees of the compression stroke at 600 and 1,000 rpm by a two-probe volume LDV system, were used to assess the capability of the k-ε model used in KIVA-II code. The objective of the paper is to address the following question: what is the most reasonable definition of turbulent length scale in the k-ε model for engine applications? The answer derived from the comparison between KIVA predictions and experiments that showed a fair agreement between the computed turbulent length scale and the measured lateral integral length scale. The agreement is a result of proper choice of the initial swirl ratio and turbulent kinetic energy at inlet valve closure (IVC) by taking into account the LDV measurements and the value of the constant Cμε in the k-ε model equations that relates the turbulent length scale to k and ε.
Journal Article

Methodology for the analysis of a 4-stroke moped emission behaviour

Mopeds are popular means of transportation, particularly in southern Europe and in eastern and southern Asia. The relative importance of their emissions increases in urban environments which host large fleets of mopeds. In Naples, for example, mopeds make a considerable contribution to HC emissions (about 53%), although the percentage of mopeds (12.4%) in the total circulating fleet is lower than that of other vehicle categories [1]. This study presents a method for analysing the influence of kinematic parameters on the emission factors of mopeds during the “cold-start” and “hot” phases of elementary kinematic sequences (speed-time profiles between two successive stops). These elementary sequences were obtained through appropriate fragmentation of complex urban driving cycles. In a second step, we show how to estimate, for the whole cycle, the duration of the cold phase and the relevant time-dependence function.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Analysis of HCCI Combustion Using a New Multi-Zone Model and CFD Simulations

A new multi-zone model for the simulation of HCCI engine is here presented. The model includes laminar and turbulent diffusion and conduction exchange between the zones and the last improvements on the numerical aspects. Furthermore, a new strategy for the zone discretization is presented, which allows a better description of the near-wall zones. The aim of the work is to provide a fast and reliable model for carrying out chemical analysis with detailed kinetic schemes. A preliminary sensitivity analysis allows to verify that 10 zones are a convenient number for a good compromise between the computational effort and the description accuracy. The multi-zone predictions are then compared with the CFD ones to find the effective turbulence parameters, with the aim to describe the near-wall phenomena, both in a reactive and non-reactive cases.
Journal Article

Propulsion of Photovoltaic Cruiser-Feeder Airships Dimensioning by Constructal Design for Efficiency Method

The European project MAAT (Multi-body Advanced Airship for Transport) is producing the design of a transportation system for transport of people and goods, based on the cruiser feeder concept. This project defined novel airship concepts capable of handling safer than in the past hydrogen as a buoyant gas. In particular, it has explored novel variable shape airship concepts, which presents also intrinsic energetic advantages. It has recently conduced to the definition of an innovative design method based on the constructal principle, which applies to large transport vehicles and allows performing an effective energetic optimization and an effective optimization for the specific mission.
Technical Paper

Increasing Aeronautic Electric Propulsion Performances by Cogeneration and Heat Recovery

Emissions from aviation have become a focus of increasing interest in recent years. The growth of civil aviation is faster than nearly all other economic sectors. Increased demand has led to a higher growth rate in fossil fuels consumption by the aviation sector. Despite more fuel-efficient and less polluting turbofan and turboprop engines, the growth of air travel contributes to increase pollution attributable to aviation. Aircraft are currently the only human-made in situ generators of emissions in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. The depletion of the stratosphere's ozone layer by CFCs and related chemicals has underscored the importance of anticipating other potential insults to the ozone layer. Different possible solutions have been advanced to reduce the environmental impact of aviation, such as electrification of ground operations, optimization of airline timetables and airspace usage, limitation of cruise altitude and increased use of turboprop aircrafts.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Fuels Properties on Emissions and Performance of a Light Duty Four-Cylinder Diesel Engine Under Premixed Combustion

The use of biodiesel or oxygenated fuels from renewable sources in diesel engines is of particular interest because of the low environmental impact that can be achieved. The present paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a light duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, gasoline and butanol mixed, at different volume fractions, with mineral diesel. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged DI four cylinder diesel engine for automotive applications equipped with a common rail injection system. Engine tests were carried out at 2500 rpm, 0.8 MPa of brake mean effective pressure selecting a single injection strategy and performing a parametric analysis on the effect of combustion phasing and oxygen concentration at intake on engine performance and exhaust emissions. The experiments demonstrated that the fuel properties have a strong impact on soot emissions.