Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

An Experimental Analysis on Diesel/n-Butanol Blends Operating in Partial Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0035
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

MonteCarlo Techniques in Thermal Analysis – Design Margins Determination Using Reduced Models and Experimental Data

2006-07-17
2006-01-2113
In the paper several application techniques of MonteCarlo (MC) method applied to thermal analysis of space vehicles are presented. Although these methods are widely used in other engineering domains, their introduction to the thermal one is quite recent and not fully developed in the industrial practice. This paper aims at showing that, even without demanding computation resources (all what presented has been obtained with a single processor PC) MonteCarlo analysis techniques, in a preliminary design phase, can support and integrate engineering judgment of the thermal designer. In particular, it is exploited the applicability of the method to reduced thermal models, with a clear advantage in terms of computation time. An original approach is proposed, and results are shown. The papers shows the applicability of the MC method to the case when experimental data of the uncertain parameters are available, using the bootstrap re-sampling techniques.
Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle and Driveline Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1583
In the last years automotive industry has shown a growing interest in exploring the field of vehicle dynamic control, improving handling performances and safety of the vehicle, and actuating devices able to optimize the driving torque distribution to the wheels. These techniques are defined as torque vectoring. The potentiality of these systems relies on the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics established by tires and powertrain. Due to this fact the detailed (and correct) simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the driveline has a strong importance in the development of these control systems, which aim is to optimize the contact forces distribution. The aim of this work is to build an integrated vehicle and powertrain model in order to provide a proper instrument to be used in the development of such systems, able to reproduce the dynamic interaction between vehicle and driveline and its effects on the handling performances.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of 30% Biodiesel Fuel on Soot Loading and Regeneration of a Catalytic DPF

2007-07-23
2007-01-2023
Biofuels are a renewable energy source. When used as extenders for transportation fuels, biofuels contribute to the global reduction of Green House Gas and CO2 emissions from the transport sector and to security and independence of energy supply. On a “Well to Wheel” basis they are much more CO2 efficient than conventional fossil fuels. All vehicles currently in circulation in Europe are capable of using 5 % biodiesel. The introduction of higher percentages biodiesel needs new specific standards and vehicle tests validation. The development of vehicles compatible with 30% biodiesel blends in diesel fuel includes the validation of each part of both engine and fuel vehicle systems to guarantee normal operation for the entire life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Gravel Noise Mechanisms and Impact Noise Transfer

2007-05-15
2007-01-2274
Impact noise, inside a car, due to tire-launched gravel on the road can lead to loss of quality perception. Gravel noise is mainly caused by small-sized particles which are too small to be seen on the road by the driver. The investigation focuses on the identification of the mechanisms of excitation and transfer. The spatial distribution of the particles flying from a tire is determined, as well as the probable impact locations on the vehicle body-panels. Finally the relative noise contributions of the body-panels are estimated by adding the panel-to-ear transfer functions. This form of Transfer-Path-Analysis allows vehicle optimization and target setting on the level of the tires, exterior panel treatment and isolation.
Technical Paper

A Database of Ingress / Egress Motions of Elderly People

2007-06-12
2007-01-2493
HANDIMAN project aims at collection data and developing a computer aided design tool that helps the designers to adapt car design to the needs of elderly and impaired people when getting in and out of a car. Healthy young people, elderly people and people with hip or/and knee prostheses participated in the experiments. For elderly subjects and those with prostheses, several clinical tests were carried out for characterizing their joint mobilities and physical capacities. Ingress / egress motions were captured for four different types of car. According to individual characteristics and motion control strategies, a motion database will be developed. With help of recently developed case based motion simulation approach, this motion database can be used to simulate new car configurations within the scope covered by the database. The aim of this paper is to present the collected data and how we are going to structure them to simulate ingress / egress motions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Both Catalyst Geometry and Fuel Sulfur Content on NOX Adsorber Poisoning

2001-05-07
2001-01-1934
NOx adsorbers are very sensitive to sulfur poisoning and future fuel standards are unlikely to be sufficient to prevent the system from requiring periodic desulfation procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the effects of low fuel sulfur content such as 50 ppm and 10 ppm on the NOx adsorber efficiency for a diesel application. Through this study, the influence of the substrate cell geometry has also been assessed. The use of a 10 ppm sulfur fuel is not enough to maintain, at a high level, the NOx adsorber performance during a 40,000 km aging test. The desulfation criterion (efficiency loss of 30%) is reached after the first 16,000 km. However, the desulfation operation is not enough to recover the initial catalyst performance and the poisoning velocity increases as the catalyst ages. The hexagonal cell substrate catalyst is less sensitive to sulfur poisoning than a square cell substrate catalyst so that its desulfation frequency is much lower.
Technical Paper

Euroncap~Views and suggestions for improvements

2001-06-04
2001-06-0087
Since its creation in 1996, Euroncap evaluated more than 80 cars, ranging from small and city cars, to larger vehicles such as executive cars and people carriers (MPVs). The testing protocol comprises 3 types of tests: a frontal offset test against a deformable barrier, a 90° lateral impact with a moving deformable barrier, and - since March 2000 - a pole side impact. In addition a set of subsystem tests with impactors on the bonnet and the front face of the car are conducted to assess the pedestrian protection. The aim of this paper is to review the testing and assessment protocols and to compare them with those used in other NCAP systems in the USA, Australia, Japan and Europe. In particular, important Euroncap issues such as the stiffness of heavier vehicles that could be increased in the future, and the nature and weight of the modifiers are discussed. Ways to improve the system are suggested in relation with real-world accident data.
Technical Paper

Effect of the air density on the evolution and mixing properties of a GDI swirled spray

2001-09-23
2001-24-0048
A swirl injector for GDI application was used to inject an iso-octane spray in a quiescent chamber, to study the effect of the air density on the spray behavior. Stroboscopic images are recorded at different delays from the injection trigger to study the spray shape and structure. The temporal evolution of different spray parameters, length, width, angle, volume, instantaneous global air-fuel ratio, is calculated from the images. The effect of the increasing air density is to shorten the time and length scale of the spray evolution.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

An Innovative 4WD Controlled Powertrain for High Performance Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0926
The potentialities shown by controlled differentials is making the automotive industry to explore this field. While VDC systems can only guarantee a safe behaviour at limit, a controlled differential can also increase the handling performance. The system derives from a RWD driveline with a semi-active differential, to which has been added a controlled wet clutch that directly connects the engine to the front axle. This device allows to distribute the drive torque between the two axles. It can be easily understood that in this device the torque distribution doesn't depend only from the central clutch action, but also from the engaged gear. Because of this particular layout this system can't work in the whole gear because thermal problems due to kinematical reasons. So the central clutch controller has to consider the gear position too.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic NOx Remediation from a Lean Model Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3508
No efficient catalyst presently exists for deNOx in lean burn conditions. Furthermore, actual catalysts generally deactivate during reaction. A cylindrical DBD non-thermal plasma reactor was coupled with a stable three-function catalyst in order to verify the nature of the effect of the plasma on the catalytic process. A mixture of NO/O2/C3H6 in N2 was used as a lean model exhaust. The plasma was found to perform two of the three functions: NO oxidation to NO2 and propene activation through the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon to aldehyde or alcohol. A complete catalyst containing the first two previous functions and the associative chemisorption of NO (third function) was used, as well as a simplified catalyst containing only the third function. Results suggest an advantageous plasma-catalyst coupling effect on NOx remediation in accordance with the proposed catalytic model.
Technical Paper

NOx-Trap System Development and Characterization for Diesel Engines Emission Control

2000-10-16
2000-01-2910
Laboratory and vehicle tests were carried out to investigate behaviour and potentiality of NOx-trap catalytic system in Diesel conditions. Three main aspects were studied. The first one deals with the NOx storage capacity of adsorber under laboratory and vehicle conditions, especially regarding the influence of driving conditions. The second one focuses on the regenerability of different materials. At length, special attention is devoted to the sulphur poisoning rate. A representative laboratory test method was built up, to evaluate NOx storage capacity under Diesel conditions. It is shown that NOx adsorption occurs from 100 to 400°C. Low temperature activity (100 to 250°C) is conditioned by low NOx flow emission, mainly due to the use of high EGR rate. Higher temperatures lead to an increase in the intrinsic NOx Storage capacity of the material, but are also accompanied by high NOx concentration and space velocity.
Technical Paper

A Validated Numerical Simulation of Diesel Injector Flow Using a VOF Method

2000-10-16
2000-01-2932
Progress in Diesel spray modelling highly depends on a better knowledge of the instantaneous injection velocity and of the hydraulic section at the exit of each injection hole. Additionally a better identification of the mechanisms which cause fragmentation is needed. This necessitates to begin with a precise computation of the two-phase flow which arises due to the presence of cavitation within the injectors. For that aim, a VOF type interface tracking method has been developed and improved (Segment Lagrangian VOF method) which allows to describe numerically the onset and development of cavitation within Diesel injectors. Furthermore, experiments have been performed for validation purpose, on transparent one-hole injectors for high pressure injection conditions. Two different entrance geometries (straight and rounded) and various upstream and downstream pressure levels have been considered.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

2000-11-01
2000-01-C071
The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
Technical Paper

Multi-Fuel Fuel Processor and PEM Fuel Cell System for Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0692
An ongoing program has made further technology advances in onboard fuel processors for use with PEM fuel cells. These systems are being explored as an option for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and for other benefits such as fuel-flexibility that would allow vehicles to operate on a range of bio-fuels, conventional fuels, and synthetic fuels to support diversification and/or “greening” of the fuel supply. As presented at the 2006 SAE World Congress1, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells previously developed fuel processor technology that achieved automotive size (80 liters) and power (1.4 g/s of hydrogen production) and reduced the startup time from more than 60 minutes to between 1.4 and 3.7 minutes to have CO <100 ppm. This paper presents an overview of the multi-fuel fuel cell power plant along with advances in the fuel processing system (FPS) technology and the testing results obtained since those reported in 2006.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

2006-10-31
2006-01-3498
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Attenuation Characteristics of I.C. Engine Silencers by 1-D and Multi-D Simulation Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-1541
This paper describes the development, application and comparison of two different non-linear numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D and 3D schematization of the geometrical domain, for the prediction of the acoustic behavior of common silencing devices for i.c. engine pulse noise abatement. A white noise approach has been adopted and applied to predict the attenuation curves of silencers in the frequency domain, while a non-reflecting boundary condition was used to represent an anechoic termination. Expansion chambers, Helmholtz and column resonators, Herschel-Quincke tubes have been simulated by both the 1D and the 3D codes and the results compared to the available linear acoustic analytical solutions. Finally, a hybrid approach, in which the CFD code has been integrated with the 1D model, is described and applied to the simulation of a single cylinder engine. The computed results are compared to the measured pressure waves and emitted sound pressure level spectra.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2147
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
X