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Technical Paper

A preliminary study to evaluate emissions factors by real and micro simulated driving cycle

Transport activities contribute significantly to the air pollution and its impact on emissions is a key element in the evaluation of any transport policy or plan. Calculation of emissions has therefore gained institutional importance in the European Community. To obtain emission factors several methods make use of only vehicle mean velocity, which can be easily obtained by vehicle flow and density in the road. Recently in ARTEMIS project by Rapone et al. (2005–2007) a meso scale emission model, named KEM (Kinematic Emission Model), able to calculate emission factor has been developed. This model is based on a new statistical methodology, capable to consider more attributes than the simple mean speed to characterize driving behaviour. An interesting approach to determine the exact mix of driving cycles is represented by the use of microscopic traffic simulation models that could be used to avoid the very expensive costs of experimental campaigns needed to obtain real driving cycle.
Technical Paper

An integrated framework of real and micro simulated driving cycles to evaluate a new emissions factors model

Transport activities contribute significantly to air pollution. For this reason any policy or plan, carried out by administration or institution, requires the assessment of its impact on the emissions. To assess the overall pollutant production from transport, it is necessary to calculate emission factors. For this aim several methods exist which only use the average speed of the traffic stream, which can be theoretically obtained by vehicles flow and density on the road. Recently, a new statistical approach has been developed capable to consider more attributes than the simple mean speed to characterize driving behaviour, not only in the determination of driving cycles but also in the emission modelling. In this context, a meso scale emission model, named KEM, Kinematic Emission Model, able to calculate emission factor was developed. However, it is necessary to consider that the input to this model is, in any case, the driving cycle.
Journal Article

Methodology for the analysis of a 4-stroke moped emission behaviour

Mopeds are popular means of transportation, particularly in southern Europe and in eastern and southern Asia. The relative importance of their emissions increases in urban environments which host large fleets of mopeds. In Naples, for example, mopeds make a considerable contribution to HC emissions (about 53%), although the percentage of mopeds (12.4%) in the total circulating fleet is lower than that of other vehicle categories [1]. This study presents a method for analysing the influence of kinematic parameters on the emission factors of mopeds during the “cold-start” and “hot” phases of elementary kinematic sequences (speed-time profiles between two successive stops). These elementary sequences were obtained through appropriate fragmentation of complex urban driving cycles. In a second step, we show how to estimate, for the whole cycle, the duration of the cold phase and the relevant time-dependence function.