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Video

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

2011-12-05
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. Presenter Thomas Bardelang, Daimler AG
Video

Challenges in Automotive Electrification and Powertrain Component Development

2011-11-07
An overview of Daimler?s progression to advance powertrain technology in a growth industry shows many different solutions to improvement in transportation. Daimler continues to make breakthroughs in technology development and application building on 125 years of automotive development. Optimization of current powertrains will enable a significant gain in CO2/mi reductions, that dependent on product mix can be augmented with additional technologies. There is however no bypass to some form of electrification, enabling efficiency gains and alternative forms of power supply. Development of hybrid powertrains continues in an established manner and enhanced development of further electrified powertrains are in development. Organizationally and technically, significant skills and adjustments need to continue to be undertaken enabling OEMs and in particular the supply base to develop optimized solutions efficiently. The outlook is bright for novel component development and innovation.
Video

An Experimental Analysis on Diesel/n-Butanol Blends Operating in Partial Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
Technical Paper

Fleet Management of the Future

1998-10-19
98C059
This paper deals with fleet management systems and the means to integrate new communication and computer technologies to improve transportation companies efficiency. It focuses on the integration of embedded electronic systems for communication and data management through the use of on-board computers, taking the point of view of the truck manufacturer. It introduces the idea of making the vehicle a nod of a complete communication network. After briefly presenting fleet management problematic and some of the major existing solutions, it analyzes how new technologies can be integrated and what major advantages they would bring.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of Sheet Metal Forming Simulation Computer Programs Into the Design Process

1996-04-01
91A121
In order to improve the design of drawn parts and to reduce the number of trial and error tests, Renault has undertaken the development and the validation of various finite element procedures and codes. This paper describes the function of each software and its level of integration into the design process. One of them is already an operational tool used be planners whilst the others are still in the validation phase. Selected examples show typical applications of the computer programs on automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Behavior of a Vehicle During Turning

1985-01-01
856041
Renault believes that the behavior of the vehicle must always be consistent with the instantaneous orders given by the driver, whether braking, accelerating or lifting the foot off the accelerator. The vehicle must also inform its driver when it is near a point of limit. The first part of this paper details the vehicle with respect to its trajectory at stabilized speeds. The rigidity of the overall drift of the axle assemblies and tires, the steering angles induced by vehicle roll attitude, under- and over-steering behavior and vehicle roll attitude, under- and over-steering behavior and behavior of the tire under load are covered. A vehicle trajectory model is used to confirm test results.
Technical Paper

Virtual Transfer Path Analysis at Daimler Trucks

2009-05-19
2009-01-2243
As for passenger cars, the overall noise and vibration comfort in commercial trucks and busses becomes an increasingly important sales argument. In order to effectively reduce the noise and vibration levels it is required to identify possible NVH issues at an early stage in the vehicle development process. For this reason a so-called “Virtual Transfer Path Analysis” (VTPA) method has been implemented which combines the results obtained from the conventional multi-body simulation and finite element method approaches. The resulting VTPA tool enables Daimler Trucks to systematically investigate and predict the complex interaction between powertrain excitation and the resulting vehicle response well before hardware prototypes become available. An overview of the theory is presented as well as the practical application and outcome of the technique applied in a past product development.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Technical Paper

Flow Maldistribution Effects on DPF Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1280
This paper focuses on some of the DPF system design issues where 3-dimensional modeling is necessary. The study is based on an existing 3-dimensional DPF model (axitrap) which is coupled to a commercial CFD code (Star-CD, CD-Adapco). The main focus is the effect of the inlet pipe geometry on soot distribution in the filter during loading and regeneration mode. The results show that due to the self-balancing effect, the resulting soot distribution in the filter under typical loading modes with low flow rates is quite uniform. With the assumption of adiabatic inlet pipe, the effect of non-symmetric inlet pipe is also negligible even during regeneration. However, under the realistic assumption of a non-adiabatic inlet pipe, the effect of inlet pipe geometry becomes very significant. Especially, for the case of a bent-shaped inlet pipe, the risk of impartial regeneration of the filter increases significantly.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Automated Report Generation and Data Acquisition Tools to Guide Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet Operations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0462
Daimler is an industry leader in the development and deployment of fuel cell vehicles. With more than 100 fuel cell vehicles being driven worldwide at locations including the U.S., Singapore, Japan, Europe, China, and Australia, Daimler currently operates the world's largest fuel cell vehicle fleet. Each fuel cell vehicle is equipped with a powerful telematics system that records a diverse set of vehicle operation and fuel cell specific data for development purposes. Through innovative analysis methods Daimler is gaining unique insight into the technical, environmental, societal, and logistic influences impacting the future of fuel cell vehicle technology.
Journal Article

Fire Fighting of Li-Ion Traction Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0213
The number of full electric and hybrid electric vehicles is rapidly growing [1][2][3]. The new technologies accompanying this trend are increasingly becoming a focal point of interest for rescue services. There is much uncertainty about the right techniques to free trapped occupants after an accident. The same applies to vehicle fires. Can car fires involving vehicles with a lithium ion traction battery be handled in the same way as conventional vehicle fires? Is water the right extinguishing agent? Is there a risk of explosion? There are many unanswered questions surrounding the topic of electric vehicle safety. The lack of information is a breeding ground for rumours, misinformation and superficial knowledge. Discussions on various internet platforms further this trend. Tests were conducted on three lithium ion traction batteries, which were fuel-fired until burning on their own. The batteries were then extinguished with water, a surfactant and a gelling agent.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0014
Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0139
The automotive industry is striving to adopt model-based engine design and optimization procedures to reduce development time and costs. In this scenario, first-principles gas dynamic models predicting the mass, energy and momentum transport in the engine air path system with high accuracy and low computation effort are extremely important today for performance prediction, optimization and cylinder charge estimation and control. This paper presents a comparative study of two different modeling approaches to predict the one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow in the engine air path system. The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Natural Gas Combustion in a Single Cylinder SI Engine and Impact of Charge Dilution by Means of EGR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0113
In this paper experimental results of a medium duty single cylinder research engine with spark ignition are presented. The engine was operated with stoichiometric natural gas combustion and additional charge dilution by means of external and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first part of this work considers the benefits of cooled EGR on thermo-mechanical stress of the engine including exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, and knock behaviour. This is followed by the analysis of the influence of cooled EGR on the heat release rate. In this context the impact of fuel gas composition is also under investigation. The influence of increasing EGR on fuel efficiency, which is caused by a changed combustion process due to higher fractions of inert gases, is shown in this section. By application of different pistons a relationship between the piston bowl geometry and the flame propagation has been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1633
In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper

Low-speed Boom Noise - Escalating Relevance According to CO2- Targets and High Torque Engines

2012-06-13
2012-01-1547
The increasing shift of drive operation towards efficient engine operation points at very low engine speeds demands a concerted design and tuning of engine, drive-train, assembly attachment and body to avoid annoying low speed boom noise. An additional challenge in this area of conflict is the increasing torque of modern engines at low engine speeds. As an example for a standard passenger car, the modes of operation, which may lead to low speed boom noise, are described. Setting levers along the complete chain of effect are characterised - from cylinder pressure up to the radiating surfaces of the interior. To achieve challenging NVH-targets the application of nonlinear simulation systems is indispensable, in particular in the concept phase of a vehicle. The use of multi-body simulation is presented for a concentrated NVH-optimisation of powertrain and rear axle vibration behaviour to reduce low-speed boom noise. On entire vehicle level hybrid simulation models are useful.
Technical Paper

Application and Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) Model on CFD Diesel Spray Simulations

2011-06-09
2011-37-0029
During the last fifteen years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become one of the most important tools to both understand and improve the diesel spray development in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Most of the approaches and models used pure Eulerian or Lagrangian descriptions to simulate the spray behavior. However, each one of them has both advantages and disadvantages in different regions of the spray, it can be the dense zone or the downstream dilute zone. One of the most promising techniques, which has been in development since ten years ago, is the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) model. This is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution, including primary break-up and secondary atomization. In this paper, the ELSA numerical modeling of diesel sprays implementation in Star-CD (2010) is studied, and simulated in comparison with the diesel spray which has been experimentally studied in our institute, CMT-Motores Térmicos.
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