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Technical Paper

Simplified Approach for Optimizing Lightening Holes in Truck Frames for Durability Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1345
During development of new vehicles, CAE driven optimizations are helpful in achieving the optimal designs. In the early phase of vehicle development there is an opportunity to explore shape changes, gage reduction or alternative materials as enablers to reduce weight. However, in later phases of vehicle development the window of opportunity closes on most of the enablers discussed above. The paper discusses a simplified methodology for reducing the weight in design cycle for truck frames using parametric Design of Experiments (DOE). In body-on-frame vehicles, reducing the weight of the frame in the design cycle without down gaging involves introducing lightening holes or cutouts while still maintaining the fatigue life. It is also known that the lightening holes might cause stress risers and be detrimental to the fatigue life of the component. Thus the ability to identify cutout locations while maintaining the durability performance becomes very critical.
Technical Paper

A New Weight Reduction Lightening Holes Development Approach Based on Frame Durability Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1348
For a light duty truck, the frame is a structural system and it must go through a series of proving ground events to meet fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performance. CAE fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dictated by the seam weld fatigue performance so opportunities for weight reduction may exist in areas away from the welds. One method to reduce frame weight is to cut lightening holes in the areas that have little impact on the frame fatigue performance.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Structural Adhesives in BIW to Improve Full Vehicle Crash Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0255
The crashworthiness of body-in-white (BIW) plays a vital role in full vehicle crash performance. The structural integrity of BIW is controlled via strength of the spot welds and adhesives that are the primary entities to join sheet metal. The number of welds and amount of adhesives in the entire BIW directly affects the cost and the cycle time of the BIW; which makes them a good candidate for optimization. However optimization of the welds and/or adhesives not only reduces the number of connections but also provides the opportunity to improve the structural performance and mass saving by placing them optimally for the structural responses. This paper discusses the optimization of full vehicle structural performance for the small overlap crash event using the length of adhesives in the BIW as parameters. Included in the study were length of the adhesives and gage variables, defined in the front-end structure of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Use of Parametric Approach to Optimize Structural Adhesives and Spot Welds in CAE Based Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-0254
Use of parametric approach to optimize CAE models for various objectives is a common practice these days. In addition to load members, the connection entities such as welds and adhesives play an important role in overall performance matrix. Hence adding the connection entities to the pool of design variables during an optimization exercise provide additional opportunity for design exploration. The method presented in this paper offers a unique approach to parameterize adhesive lines by evaluating the possibility of using structural adhesives as intermittent patches rather than continuous lines. The paper discusses two optimization studies 1) structural adhesive patches along with spot weld pitch as design variables, and 2) structural adhesive patches with gage variables. These studies include the Body in White (BiW) and Trimmed Body in White (TBiW) assessments.
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