Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 2 of 2
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions of Euro I, II and III Gasoline Cars

Unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonylic compounds, benzene and particulate matter (PM) were quantified in exhausts of a vehicle fleet representative of in use gasoline cars. Emission factors were obtained during both cold and hot start driving cycles (from urban to motorway driving conditions). Carbonylic compounds were sampled by DNPH cartridges and analyzed by HPLC. Benzene and other light hydrocarbons were collected in bags and then analyzed by GC-FID. PAHs were trapped in XAD-2 cartridges and then analyzed by GC-MS. PM was sampled by using the gravimetric procedure required for diesel cars. The effect of technology is significant with respect to regulated and unregulated emissions but different emissive behavior was found by varying the driving cycles. Cold start has a major influence on hydrocarbon emissions (included unregulated ones). This experimental work was carried out within the framework of the EU Artemis project.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Benzene Emissions of In-Use Two-Stroke Mopeds and Motorcycles

The attention on emissions of two-wheelers has been poor in the past, but today in countries with a large two-wheeler population it gives a significant contribution to aggregate emissions. In this paper the results obtained on a fleet composed by 22 two-stroke motorcycles (including mopeds) are presented. Sixteen in-use mopeds and six 125 cm3 motorcycles have been tested over ECE 47 and ECE 40 driving cycles respectively. Regulated emissions (CO, HC, NOx), carbon dioxide, benzene and fuel consumption have been evaluated by fueling motorcycles with two different gasoline formulations. One gasoline was a commercial Italian leaded gasoline with 1% benzene content; the other was a lower benzene and aromatics content gasoline. Benzene emissions decreased according to benzene content of gasoline.