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Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle and Driveline Modeling

In the last years automotive industry has shown a growing interest in exploring the field of vehicle dynamic control, improving handling performances and safety of the vehicle, and actuating devices able to optimize the driving torque distribution to the wheels. These techniques are defined as torque vectoring. The potentiality of these systems relies on the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics established by tires and powertrain. Due to this fact the detailed (and correct) simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the driveline has a strong importance in the development of these control systems, which aim is to optimize the contact forces distribution. The aim of this work is to build an integrated vehicle and powertrain model in order to provide a proper instrument to be used in the development of such systems, able to reproduce the dynamic interaction between vehicle and driveline and its effects on the handling performances.
Technical Paper

Effect of the air density on the evolution and mixing properties of a GDI swirled spray

A swirl injector for GDI application was used to inject an iso-octane spray in a quiescent chamber, to study the effect of the air density on the spray behavior. Stroboscopic images are recorded at different delays from the injection trigger to study the spray shape and structure. The temporal evolution of different spray parameters, length, width, angle, volume, instantaneous global air-fuel ratio, is calculated from the images. The effect of the increasing air density is to shorten the time and length scale of the spray evolution.
Technical Paper

An Innovative 4WD Controlled Powertrain for High Performance Vehicle

The potentialities shown by controlled differentials is making the automotive industry to explore this field. While VDC systems can only guarantee a safe behaviour at limit, a controlled differential can also increase the handling performance. The system derives from a RWD driveline with a semi-active differential, to which has been added a controlled wet clutch that directly connects the engine to the front axle. This device allows to distribute the drive torque between the two axles. It can be easily understood that in this device the torque distribution doesn't depend only from the central clutch action, but also from the engaged gear. Because of this particular layout this system can't work in the whole gear because thermal problems due to kinematical reasons. So the central clutch controller has to consider the gear position too.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Attenuation Characteristics of I.C. Engine Silencers by 1-D and Multi-D Simulation Models

This paper describes the development, application and comparison of two different non-linear numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D and 3D schematization of the geometrical domain, for the prediction of the acoustic behavior of common silencing devices for i.c. engine pulse noise abatement. A white noise approach has been adopted and applied to predict the attenuation curves of silencers in the frequency domain, while a non-reflecting boundary condition was used to represent an anechoic termination. Expansion chambers, Helmholtz and column resonators, Herschel-Quincke tubes have been simulated by both the 1D and the 3D codes and the results compared to the available linear acoustic analytical solutions. Finally, a hybrid approach, in which the CFD code has been integrated with the 1D model, is described and applied to the simulation of a single cylinder engine. The computed results are compared to the measured pressure waves and emitted sound pressure level spectra.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modelling Study of Octane Number and Sensitivity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in CFR Engines

Aim of this work is to present and discuss the possibility and the limits of two zone models for spark-ignition engines using a detailed kinetic scheme for the characterization of the evolution of the air-fuel mixture, while an equilibrium approach is used for the burnt zone. Simple experimental measurements of knocking tendency of different fuels in ideal reactors, such as rapid compression machines and shock tube reactors, cannot be directly used for the analysis of octane numbers and sensitivity of hydrocarbon mixtures. Thus a careful investigation is very useful, not only of the combustion chamber behavior, including the modelling of the turbulent flame front propagation, but also of the fluid dynamic behavior of the intake and exhaust system, accounting for the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of Derivative-Free Search Algorithms for Performance Optimization of Spark Ignition Engines

This paper exploits the possibilities of achieving an efficient performance optimization methodology to be applied to different spark ignition engine configurations. The objective of the task described here is to determine the combination of parameters which provides the highest volumetric efficiency and effective torque. The definition of general strategy requires first the identification and grouping of the geometric and operating variables to be optimized (duct diameters and lengths, valve timing, spark advance, etc…). The high number of possibilities entails critical choices to reduce, from an engineering design point of view before than from a mathematical point of view, the required computational time. Once proper thermo-fluid dynamic decisions are taken, the most efficient optimization methodology is required. The application of Design of Experiments techniques allows to screen the design space and give a first estimation of the optimal point.
Technical Paper

Spatial-Temporal Characterization of Alternative Fuel Sprays from a Second-Generation Common-Rail Fuel Injection System for Euro4 Passenger Car Application

GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori CNR have undergone a research project aimed at studying the effects on engine performance, emissions and fuel consumption of alternative diesel fuels, from both first (FAME) and second (GTL) generation. The present paper reports some of the results achieved studying the impact on injection and spray behavior of rapeseed and soybean methyl-esters, as well as of GTL diesel blends. The test were performed on a Bosch second generation common rail solenoid-driven fuel injection system capable of 1600bar maximum injection pressure, fitted on GM 1.9L Euro4 diesel engine for passenger cars. The characterization of the injection process has been carried out in terms both of fuel injection rate, as well as of spatial and temporal fuel distribution in a quiescent non-evaporative optically accessible chamber.
Technical Paper

High Spatial Resolution Visualization and Spectroscopic Investigation of the Flame Front Propagation in the Combustion Chamber of a Scooter Engine

The match between the increasing performance demands and stringent requirements of emissions and fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the 2-wheel vehicle technology. In particular many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycle and scooter at low engine speeds and low temperature start. To this aim, the detailed understandings of thermal and fluid-dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber are fundamental. In this work, experimental activities were realized in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine. High spatial resolution imaging was used to follow the flame kernel growth and flame front propagation. Moreover, the effects of an abnormal combustion due to firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface were investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Temperature Premixed Combustion (LTPC) on Emissions of a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars

In this paper, a Low Temperature Premixed Combustion (LTPC) was investigated employing a four cylinder D.I. common rail Diesel engine, used for passenger cars on the European market. Experiments were carried out setting the engine speed at 2500 rpm with a fuel amount of 26 mg/str to realize an operating condition close to the point of NEDC at 0.8 MPa of BMEP. The experimental approach was the management of the start of injection, injection pressure and EGR rates as a method to control NOx and soot production. The investigation was first carried out testing engine performances and emissions as set from the commercial engine map. Afterward, engine tests were carried out exploring performances, gaseous and smoke emissions at late start of combustion [10 to 17.5 cad ATDC], injection pressures from 80 to 120 MPa and EGR rates up to 50%.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of High-Pressure Diesel Sprays with Multiple Injections at Engine Conditions

A numerical methodology to simulate the high pressure spray evolution and the fuel-air mixing in diesel engines is presented. Attention is focused on the employed atomization model, a modified version of the Huh and Gosman, on the definition of a turbulence length scale limiter and of an adaptive local mesh refinement technique to minimize the result grid dependency. All the discussed models were implemented into Lib-ICE, which is a set of libraries and solvers, specifically tailored for engine simulations, which runs under the open-source CFD technology OpenFOAM®. To provide a comprehensive assessment of the proposed methodology, the validation procedure consisted into simulating, with a unique and coherent setup of all models, two different sets of experiments: a non-evaporating diesel fuel spray in a constant-volume vessel with optical access and an evaporating non-reacting diesel fuel spray in an optical engine.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Effect on In-cylinder Formation and Exhaust Emission of Particulate from a 4-Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicles

The small engine for two-wheel vehicles has generally high possibility to be optimized at low speeds and high loads. In these conditions fuel consumption and pollutants emission should be reduced maintaining the performance levels. This optimization can be realized only improving the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. It is known that, during the fuel injection phase in PFI SI engines, thin films of liquid fuel can form on the valves surface and on the cylinder walls. Successively the fuel films interact with the intake manifold and the combustion chamber gas flow. During the normal combustion process, it is possible to achieve gas temperature and mixture strength conditions that lead to fuel film ignition. This phenomenon can create diffusion-controlled flames that can persist well after the normal combustion event. These flames induce the emission of soot and unburned hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Control Parameters for a Heavy-Duty CNG Engine via Co-Simulation Analysis

Internal combustion engines for vehicle propulsion are more and more sophisticated due to increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In case of heavy-duty engines, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueling coupled with Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) can help in meeting the imposed emission limits and preventing from thermal stress of engine components. To cope with the new issues associated with the more complex hardware and to improve powertrain performance and reliability and after-treatment efficiency, the engine control strategies must be reformulated. The paper focuses on the steady-state optimization of control parameters for a heavy-duty engine fueled by CNG and equipped with turbocharger and EGR. The optimization analysis is carried out to design EGR, spark timing and wastegate control, aimed at increasing fuel economy while reducing in-cylinder temperature to prevent from thermal stress of engine components.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the ECN Spray A Using Multidimensional Chemistry Coordinate Mapping: n-Dodecane Diesel Combustion

A three dimensional numerical simulation of the ECN “Spray A” is presented. Both primary and secondary breakup of the spray are included. The fuel is n-Dodecane. The n-Dodecane kinetic mechanism is modeled using a skeletal mechanism that consists of 103 species and 370 reactions [9]. The kinetic mechanism is computationally heavy when coupled with three dimensional numerical simulations. Multidimensional chemistry coordinate mapping (CCM) approach is used to speedup the simulation. CCM involves two-way mapping between CFD cells and a discretized multidimensional thermodynamic space, the so called multidimensional chemistry coordinate space. In the text, the cells in the discretized multidimensional thermodynamic space are called zone to discriminate them from the CFD cells. In this way, the CFD cells which are at the similar thermodynamic state are identified and grouped into a unique zone. The stiff ODEs operates only on the zones containing at least one CFD cell.
Technical Paper

Application of the CTC Model to Predict Combustion and Pollutant Emissions in a Common-Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Multiple Injections and High EGR

Multiple injections and high EGR rates are now widely adopted for combustion and emissions control in passenger car diesel engines. In a wide range of operating conditions, fuel is provided through one to five separated injection events, and recirculated gas fractions between 0 to 30% are used. Within this context, fast and reliable multi-dimensional models are necessary to define suitable injection strategies for different operating points and reduce both the costs and time required for engine design and development. In this work, the authors have applied a modified version of the characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) to predict combustion and pollutant emissions in diesel engines using advanced injection strategies. The Shell auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition, with a suitable set of coefficients that were tuned for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Approach to Model Fuel-Air Mixing in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

Direct-injection represents a consolidated technology to increase performance and efficiency in spark-ignition engines. It reduces the knock tendency and makes engine downsizing possible through the use of turbocharging. Better control of CO and HC emissions at cold-start is also ensured since there is no wall-impingement in the intake port. However, to take advantages of all the theoretical benefits derived from GDI technology, detailed investigations of both fuel-air mixing and combustion processes are necessary to extend the stratified charge operations in the engine map and to reduce soot emissions, that are now severely regulated by emission standards. In this work, the authors developed a CFD methodology to investigate and optimize the fuel-air mixing process in direct-injection, spark-ignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to model the evolution of the fuel spray emerging from a multi-hole injector.
Technical Paper

UV-Visible Imaging and Natural Emission Spectroscopy of Premixed Combustion in High Swirl Multi-Jets Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Gasoline Blend

One promising approach to reduce pollutants from compression ignition engines is the Partially-Premixed- Combustion in which engine out emissions can be reduced by promoting mixing of fuel and air prior to auto-ignition. A great interest for a premixed combustion regime is the investigation on fuels with different reactivity by blending diesel with lower cetane number and higher volatility fuels. In fact, fuels more resistant to auto-ignition give longer ignition delay that may enhance the fuel/air mixing prior to combustion. During the ignition delay period, the fuel spray atomizes into small droplets, vaporizes and mixes with air. As the piston moves towards TDC, as soon as the mixture temperature reaches the ignition point, instantaneously some pre-mixed amount of fuel and air ignites. The balance of fuel that does not burn in premixed combustion is consumed in the rate-controlled combustion phase, also known as diffusion combustion.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Closed-Loop Combustion Control Capability for Biodiesel Blending Detection and Combustion Impact Mitigation for an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) at different levels of blending on performance, emissions and fuel consumption of modern automotive diesel engines featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control (CLCC). In parallel, the capability of this system to detect the level of biodiesel blending through the use of specific detection algorithms was assessed. The tests were performed on the recently released 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application equipped with embedded pressure sensors in the glow plugs. Various blends of fresh and aged RME with reference diesel fuel were tested, notably 20% RME by volume (B20), 50% (B50) and pure RME (B100).