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Technical Paper

Influence of Driving Cycles on Powered Two-Wheelers Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Cold Start Behavior

A wide investigation on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is presented, aiming at the analysis of the influence of the driving characteristics on PTWs exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, a deeper comprehension of the engine and after-treatment system behavior within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions for different two-wheelers classes. The study was developed with reference to an European context focusing on Euro 3 motorcycles and Euro 2 mopeds. An experimental investigation on instantaneous speed measurements was carried out with instrumented motorcycles, considering typical urban trips in the city of Genoa. A selection of speed profiles was then performed by processing experimental values.
Technical Paper

Statistical Investigation of In Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measured by PEM on Different Gasoline Cars

In this paper some results relative to tests performed on road with a Fiat Panda Bipower, (CNG and gasoline powered), and a New Panda Twin Air with auto Start & Stop system, are presented. Gaseous emissions are measured with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) on two different urban routes, in terms of traffic and slope characteristics during in use experiments. PEMS testing offers an easy and efficient way to evaluate the vehicle emissions over a huge variety of conditions and provides us a direct way to study the in-use emissions of combustion engines, when you want to verify the effect of the traffic and of a particular device on fuel economy and emissions reduction. Moreover now PEMS performances are very comparable to those obtained by standard laboratory instrumentation systems.
Technical Paper

Some Comparisons between Real and KEM Predicted Emission Values on a EURO 4 Panda Bi-Fuel Vehicles

The problem of emission evaluation control and modelling is nowadays an open question. In the framework of a Decision Support System (DSS), a new approach was developed for modeling and evaluating automotive pollutant emissions. An interesting point of this proposal was the integration of the micro simulated model to obtain driving cycle. In fact an important open issue is the very expensive costs of experimental campaigns needed to obtain driving cycle statistically representative of driving behaviour. So to overcome these high costs and to extend the real vehicle operating conditions framework, a possible solution is to integrate a microsimulation model in the general context of emission modeling. But the reliability of driving cycles coming from simulation models must be evaluated with respect to the possible influence on test bench measured emissions. In this paper, we would try to present some results related to two aspects of the problem.
Technical Paper

Impinging Jets of Fuel on a Heated Surface: Effects of Wall Temperature and Injection Conditions

In spark ignition engines, the nozzle design, fuel pressure, injection timing, and interaction with the cylinder/piston walls govern the evolution of the fuel spray inside the cylinder before the start of combustion. The fuel droplets, hitting the surface, may rebound or stick forming a film on the wall, or evaporate under the heat exchange effect. The face wetting results in a strong impact on the mixture formation and emission, in particular, on particulate and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior, atomization, and vaporization of impinging sprays on the metal surface. A mono-component fuel, iso-octane, was adopted in the spray-wall studies inside an optically-accessible quiescent vessel by imaging procedures using a Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up in combination with a high-speed C-Mos camera.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Imaging System to Evaluate Liquid and Vapor Contours of a Gasoline Spray Impacting on a Heated Wall

In internal combustion engines, the direct injection at high pressures produces a strong impact of the fuel on the combustion chamber wall, especially in small-bore sizes used for passenger cars. This effect is relevant for the combustion process resulting in an increase of the pollutant emissions and in a reduction of the engine performances. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior and atomization of the impinging sprays on the wall. The gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside an optically accessible quiescent chamber using a novel make ready Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up using a high-speed C-Mos camera as imaging system. The arrangement was capable to acquire alternatively the schlieren and Mie-scattering images in a quasi-simultaneous fashion using the same line-of-sight.
Technical Paper

Real Driving Emissions of a Light-Duty Vehicle in Naples. Influence of Road Grade

The aim of this study is to investigate the parameters influencing the real driving emission monitoring with particular attention towards the influence of road gradient. For this purpose, an experimental activity was carried out with a Euro 5 Diesel light-duty vehicle, driven along two tracks of Naples characterized by a different road gradient: the first pattern is quite flat, the second includes positive (+2.9%) and negative (−3.6%) road gradient. Exhaust emissions of CO, THC, NOx, CO2 were acquired on road by using a portable emission measuring system (PEMS) connected also to the Engine Control Unit for saving the main engine parameters and to the GPS for the geographical coordinates and altitude. The acquired speed profiles were repeated on the chassis-dynamometer without simulating the road gradient.
Technical Paper

Vapor and Liquid Phases of the ECN Spray G Impacting on a Flat Wall at Engine-Like Conditions

Mixture formation is fundamental for the development of the combustion process in internal combustion engines, for the energy release, the consumption, and the pollutant formation. Concerning the spark ignition engines, the direct injection technology is being considered as an effective mean to achieve the optimal air-to-fuel ratio distribution at each operating condition, either through charge stratification around the spark plug and stoichiometric mixture under the high power requirements. Due to the highest injection pressures, the impact of a spray on the piston or on the cylinder walls causes the formation of liquid film (wall-film) and secondary atomization of the droplets. The wall-film could have no negligible size, especially where the mixture formation is realized under a wall-guided mode. The present work aims to report the effects of the ambient pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic parameters of the spray impact on a wall.
Technical Paper

Statistical Determination of Local Driving Cycles Based on Experimental Campaign as WLTC Real Approach

In the context of a transport sustainability, some solutions could be proposed from the integration of many disciplines, architects, environmentalists, policy makers, and consequently it may be addressed with different approaches. These solutions would be applied at different geographical levels, i.e. national, regional or urban scale. Moreover, the assessment of cars emissions in real use plays a fundamental role for their reductions. This is also the direction of the new harmonized test procedures (WLTP). Furthermore, it is fundamental to keep in mind that the new WLTC cycle will reproduce a situation closer to the reality comparing to the EUDC/NEDC driving cycle. In this paper, we will be focused on vehicle kinematic evaluation aimed at valuation of traffic situation and emissions.
Journal Article

Real Time Emissive Behaviour of a Bi-Fuel Euro 4 SI Car in Naples Urban Area

An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the influence of CNG and gasoline on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a bi-fuel passenger car over on-road tests performed in the city of Naples. The chosen route is very traffic congested during the daytime of experimental measurements. An on-board analyzer was used to measure CO, CO2, NOx tailpipe concentrations and the exhaust flow rate. Throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust pollutants, the fuel consumption was estimated. The exact spatial position was acquired by a GPS which allowed to calculate vehicle speed and the traffic condition was monitored by a video camera. Whole trip realized by the vehicle was subdivided in succession of kinematic sequences and the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were analyzed and presented as value on each kinematic sequence. Moreover, throughout a multivariate statistical analysis of sequences, the driving cycles characterizing the use of vehicle were identified.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G

The use of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) continuously increases due to the growing demand of efficiency and power output for i.c. engines. The optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion, reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Good spray atomization facilitates fuel evaporation in i.c. engines thus contributing to the fuel economy and lowering the emissions. One of the key features of a multi-hole injector is to provide an optimal spray pattern in the combustion chamber and a good mixture homogenization considering the engine-specific characteristics such fuel mass-flow rate, cylinder geometry, injector position, and charge motion. This work aims to investigate the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G, serial #19).
Journal Article

The Evaluation of a New Kinematic Emissions Model on Real and Simulated Driving Cycles

The evaluation of vehicles real emissions circulating in urban areas is a basic activity for planning and management of implemented traffic measures aiming at emission control and air quality improvement. National, region, and city emission inventories require overall average emission estimation based on modeling technique with a few input parameters such as fleet composition and mission profile, represented by average speed. But in the field of emission modeling an important open issue is the very expensive costs of experimental campaigns needed to obtain driving cycle statistically representative of driving behavior, also if only in a specific link of a network. A possible approach to deal with this problem is represented by the use of traffic microscopic simulation models which are capable to simulate individual car motion on the basis of traffic conditions, road characteristics and management rules.