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Technical Paper

Influence of Catalyst Performance on Car Emissions in Urban Congested Traffic

1997-05-01
971604
A reason of the lack of agreement between measured pollutants concentration in the air of urban areas and vehicle pollutant emissions evaluated by available emission models is the fact that catalyst performance variability is not considered. In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of performance variability of catalyst on emissions is presented. Average emissions have been measured using driving cycles representative of different levels of urban traffic, determined by statistical methods on the basis of data detected on-road by an instrumented car. For each driving cycle, representative of a certain traffic level, different thermal starting conditions of catalyst have been tested. These conditions have been determined by the characterization of catalyst performance at steady state and are representative of real catalyst conditions experienced on the road.
Technical Paper

Influence of Driving Cycles on Powered Two-Wheelers Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Cold Start Behavior

2013-04-08
2013-01-1048
A wide investigation on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is presented, aiming at the analysis of the influence of the driving characteristics on PTWs exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, a deeper comprehension of the engine and after-treatment system behavior within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions for different two-wheelers classes. The study was developed with reference to an European context focusing on Euro 3 motorcycles and Euro 2 mopeds. An experimental investigation on instantaneous speed measurements was carried out with instrumented motorcycles, considering typical urban trips in the city of Genoa. A selection of speed profiles was then performed by processing experimental values.
Technical Paper

Statistical Investigation of In Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measured by PEM on Different Gasoline Cars

2013-04-08
2013-01-1511
In this paper some results relative to tests performed on road with a Fiat Panda Bipower, (CNG and gasoline powered), and a New Panda Twin Air with auto Start & Stop system, are presented. Gaseous emissions are measured with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) on two different urban routes, in terms of traffic and slope characteristics during in use experiments. PEMS testing offers an easy and efficient way to evaluate the vehicle emissions over a huge variety of conditions and provides us a direct way to study the in-use emissions of combustion engines, when you want to verify the effect of the traffic and of a particular device on fuel economy and emissions reduction. Moreover now PEMS performances are very comparable to those obtained by standard laboratory instrumentation systems.
Technical Paper

A Calculation Procedure for the Evaluation of Cold Emissive Behavior of High-Performance Motorcycles

2011-09-11
2011-24-0200
All the experimental investigations performed in the last years on newly sold motorcycles, equipped with a three-way catalyst and electronic mixture control, clearly indicate that CO and HC cold additional emissions, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, represent an important proportion of total emissions. Consequently, calculation programs for estimating emissions from road transports for air quality modeling in dedicated local areas should take into consideration this effect. From this motivation, an experimental activity on motorcycles cold emissive behavior is being jointly conducted by Istituto Motori of the National Research Council (IM-CNR) and the Department of Mechanic and Energetic (DiME) of the University of Naples.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Cooling Plant of a High Performance Motorbike Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0354
This paper is based on a Research Project of the Department of Mechanical Engineering (DiME) in collaboration with Aprilia, the Italian motorbike manufacturer. In an attempt to simulate the functioning of the cooling plant of the Aprilia RSV-4 motorbike a numerical model was constructed using mono-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation codes. Our ultimate aim was to create a simulation model which could be of assistance to engine designers to improve cooling plant performance, thereby reducing research and development costs. The model allows to simulate the running conditions of the whole cooling circuit upon variations in environmental and running conditions. In particular, the centrifugal pump of the cooling plant was simulated by a 3D commercial software, while the whole circuit was built by a 1D commercial code which allows simulation of all the thermal exchanges and pressure drops in the cooling circuit.
Technical Paper

Real Driving Emissions of a Light-Duty Vehicle in Naples. Influence of Road Grade

2015-09-06
2015-24-2509
The aim of this study is to investigate the parameters influencing the real driving emission monitoring with particular attention towards the influence of road gradient. For this purpose, an experimental activity was carried out with a Euro 5 Diesel light-duty vehicle, driven along two tracks of Naples characterized by a different road gradient: the first pattern is quite flat, the second includes positive (+2.9%) and negative (−3.6%) road gradient. Exhaust emissions of CO, THC, NOx, CO2 were acquired on road by using a portable emission measuring system (PEMS) connected also to the Engine Control Unit for saving the main engine parameters and to the GPS for the geographical coordinates and altitude. The acquired speed profiles were repeated on the chassis-dynamometer without simulating the road gradient.
Technical Paper

How Much Regeneration Events Influence Particle Emissions of DPF-Equipped Vehicles?

2017-09-04
2017-24-0144
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most effective emission control device for reducing particle emissions (both mass, PM, and number, PN) from diesel engines, however many studies reported elevated emissions of nanoparticles (<50 nm) during its regeneration. In this paper the results of an extensive literature survey is presented. During DPF active regeneration, most of the literature studies showed an increase in the number of the emitted nanoparticles of about 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the normal operating conditions. Many factors could influence their amount, size distribution, chemical-physical nature (volatiles, semi-volatiles, solid) and the duration of the regenerative event: i.e. DPF load and thermodynamic conditions, lube and fuel sulfur content, engine operative conditions, PN sampling and measurement methodologies.
Journal Article

Real Time Emissive Behaviour of a Bi-Fuel Euro 4 SI Car in Naples Urban Area

2013-09-08
2013-24-0173
An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the influence of CNG and gasoline on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a bi-fuel passenger car over on-road tests performed in the city of Naples. The chosen route is very traffic congested during the daytime of experimental measurements. An on-board analyzer was used to measure CO, CO2, NOx tailpipe concentrations and the exhaust flow rate. Throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust pollutants, the fuel consumption was estimated. The exact spatial position was acquired by a GPS which allowed to calculate vehicle speed and the traffic condition was monitored by a video camera. Whole trip realized by the vehicle was subdivided in succession of kinematic sequences and the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were analyzed and presented as value on each kinematic sequence. Moreover, throughout a multivariate statistical analysis of sequences, the driving cycles characterizing the use of vehicle were identified.
Journal Article

Emissions and Combustion Behavior of a Bi-Fuel Gasoline and Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0212
In the last ten years, the number of natural gas vehicles worldwide has grown rapidly with the biggest contribution coming from the Asia-Pacific and Latin America regions. As natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, the exhaust emissions from natural gas spark ignition vehicles are lower than those of gasoline powered vehicles. Moreover, natural gas is less affected by price fluctuations and its resources are more evenly widespread over the globe than to oil. However, as natural gas vehicles are usually bi-fuel gasoline and natural gas, the excellent knock resistant characteristics of natural gas cannot be completely exploited. This paper shows the results of an experimental activity performed on a passenger car fuelled alternatively by gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG). The vehicle has been tested on a chassis dynamometer over standard (NEDC) and real driving cycles (Artemis CADC), allowing to investigate a wide range of operating conditions.
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