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Technical Paper

Use of Renewable Oxygenated Fuels in Order to Reduce Particle Emissions from a GDI High Performance Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0628
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distributions from a DI High Performance SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline-Ethanol Blended Fuels

2011-09-11
2011-24-0211
This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on the combustion characteristics and exhaust particulate emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with blends of bio-ethanol and European gasoline fuel. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at fixed speed and load, namely 1500 rpm and 110 Nm, and fuelled with gasoline (E0), ethanol (E100) and two blends 50% v/v (E50) and 85% v/v (E85) of ethanol in gasoline. Two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge and stratified charge combustion mode. The study mainly focuses on the effects of fuel injection strategy and ethanol upon the emissions of particulate matter (PM), in terms of mass, number concentration and size distribution.
Technical Paper

Impinging Jets of Fuel on a Heated Surface: Effects of Wall Temperature and Injection Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0863
In spark ignition engines, the nozzle design, fuel pressure, injection timing, and interaction with the cylinder/piston walls govern the evolution of the fuel spray inside the cylinder before the start of combustion. The fuel droplets, hitting the surface, may rebound or stick forming a film on the wall, or evaporate under the heat exchange effect. The face wetting results in a strong impact on the mixture formation and emission, in particular, on particulate and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior, atomization, and vaporization of impinging sprays on the metal surface. A mono-component fuel, iso-octane, was adopted in the spray-wall studies inside an optically-accessible quiescent vessel by imaging procedures using a Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up in combination with a high-speed C-Mos camera.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Imaging System to Evaluate Liquid and Vapor Contours of a Gasoline Spray Impacting on a Heated Wall

2015-09-06
2015-24-2473
In internal combustion engines, the direct injection at high pressures produces a strong impact of the fuel on the combustion chamber wall, especially in small-bore sizes used for passenger cars. This effect is relevant for the combustion process resulting in an increase of the pollutant emissions and in a reduction of the engine performances. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior and atomization of the impinging sprays on the wall. The gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside an optically accessible quiescent chamber using a novel make ready Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up using a high-speed C-Mos camera as imaging system. The arrangement was capable to acquire alternatively the schlieren and Mie-scattering images in a quasi-simultaneous fashion using the same line-of-sight.
Technical Paper

Vapor and Liquid Phases of the ECN Spray G Impacting on a Flat Wall at Engine-Like Conditions

2016-10-17
2016-01-2199
Mixture formation is fundamental for the development of the combustion process in internal combustion engines, for the energy release, the consumption, and the pollutant formation. Concerning the spark ignition engines, the direct injection technology is being considered as an effective mean to achieve the optimal air-to-fuel ratio distribution at each operating condition, either through charge stratification around the spark plug and stoichiometric mixture under the high power requirements. Due to the highest injection pressures, the impact of a spray on the piston or on the cylinder walls causes the formation of liquid film (wall-film) and secondary atomization of the droplets. The wall-film could have no negligible size, especially where the mixture formation is realized under a wall-guided mode. The present work aims to report the effects of the ambient pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic parameters of the spray impact on a wall.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Ethanol Blends Combustion Processes and Soot Formation in a GDI Optical Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1316
This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of fuel properties on soot formation in a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in an optical 4-stroke small single cylinder engine for two-wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with an elongated piston with a wide sapphire window in the head and a quartz cylinder liner. The engine was fuelled with pure gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 20% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. Optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the combustion process and soot formation. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to assess the soot evolution. Radical species such as OH and CH, related to fuel quality and to soot formation/oxidation process, were detected. Measurements were carried out at various engine speeds and loads in order to allow optical measurements and to test the engine in real conditions.
Technical Paper

Iso-Octane Spray from a GDI Multi-Hole Injector under Non- and Flash Boiling Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2319
GDI injection systems have become dominant in passenger cars due to their flexibility in managing and advantages in the fuel economy. With the increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the fuel spray behavior has become essential. Different engine loads produce in a variety of fuel supplying conditions that affect the air/fuel mixture preparation and influence the efficiency and pollutant production. The flash boiling is a particular state that occurs for peculiar thermodynamic conditions of the engine. It could strongly influence the mixture in sub-atmospheric environments with detrimental effects on emissions. In order to obtain an in-depth understanding of the flash boiling phenomena, it is necessary to study the parameters influencing the mixture formation and their appearance in diverse engine conditions.
Journal Article

Determination of Oxidation Characteristics and Studies on the Feasibility of Metallic Nanoparticles Combustion Under ICE-Like Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0105
The present work relates to the investigation of the basic oxidation characteristics of iron and aluminium nanoparticles as well as the feasibility of their combustion under both Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-like and real engine conditions. Based on a series of proof-of-concept experiments, combustion was found to be feasible taking place in a controllable way and bearing similarities to the respective case of conventional fuels. These studies were complimented by relevant in-situ and ex-situ/post-analysis, in order to elaborate the fundamental phenomena occurring during combustion as well as the extent and ‘quality’ of the process. The oxidation mechanisms of the two metallic fuels appear different and -as expected- the energy release during combustion of aluminium is significantly higher than that released in the case of iron.
Technical Paper

ECN Spray G Injector: Assessment of Numerical Modeling Accuracy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0306
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is a leading technology for Spark Ignition (SI) engines: control of the injection process is a key to design the engine properly. The aim of this paper is a numerical investigation of the gasoline injection and the resulting development of plumes from an 8-hole Spray G injector into a quiescent chamber. A LES approach has been used to represent with high accuracy the mixing process between the injected fuel and the surrounding mixture. A Lagrangian approach is employed to model the liquid spray. The fuel, considered as a surrogate of gasoline, is the iso-octane which is injected into the high-pressure vessel filled with nitrogen. The numerical results have been compared against experimental data realized in the optical chamber. To reveal the geometry of plumes two different imaging techniques have been used in a quasi-simultaneous mode: Mie-scattering for the liquid phase and schlieren for the gaseous one.
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