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Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

1989-02-01
890431
Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

1973-02-01
730633
Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment on Flame Morphology and Combustion Evolution in a SI Engine Under Lean Burn Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1144
Uncertainty of fuel supply in the energy sector and environmental protection concerns have motivated studies on clean and renewable alternative fuels for vehicles as well as stationary applications. Among all fuel candidates, hydrogen is generally believed to be a promising alternative, with significant potential for a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, a comparison was carried out between CH4, two CH4/H2 blends and two mixtures of CO and H2, the last one taken as a reference composition representative of syngas. It is imperative to fully understand and characterize how these fuels behave in various conditions. In particular, a deep knowledge of how hydrogen concentrations affect the combustion process is necessary, given that it represents a fundamental issue for the optimization of internal combustion engines. To this aim, flame morphology and combustion stability were studied in a SI engine under lean burn conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling Pressure Oscillations under Knocking Conditions: A Partial Differential Wave Equation Approach

2010-10-25
2010-01-2185
In this work the authors present a model to simulate the in-cylinder pressure oscillations due to knock. Pressure oscillations are predicted by the explicit integration of a Partial Differential Wave Equation (PDWE) similar, in its structure, to the so-called “Equation of Telegraphy”. This equation differs mainly from the classical wave formulation for the presence of a loss term. The general solution of such equation is obtained by the Fourier method of variables separation. The integration space is a cylindrical acoustic cavity whose volume is evaluated at the knock onset. The integration constants are derived from the boundary and initial conditions. A novel approach is proposed to derive the initial condition for the derivative of the oscillating component of pressure. It descends, conceptually, from the integration of the linearized relation between the derivative of pressure versus time and the expansion velocity of burned gas.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Investigation in a Small SI Engine using Optical Diagnostics

2010-10-25
2010-01-2262
Nowadays an elevated number of two, three and four wheels vehicles circulating in the world-wide urban areas is equipped with Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engines. Their technological level is high, but a further optimization is still possible, especially at low engine speed and high load. To this purpose, the scientific community is now focused on deepening the understanding of thermo fluid dynamic phenomena that takes place in this kind of engine: the final purpose is to find key points for the reduction in engine specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions without a decrease in performance. In this work, the combustion process was investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder PFI SI engine. It was equipped with the head, injection device and exhaust line of a commercial small engine for two-wheel vehicles, it had the same geometrical characteristics in terms of bore, stroke and compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0584
Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Effect on In-cylinder Formation and Exhaust Emission of Particulate from a 4-Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0354
The small engine for two-wheel vehicles has generally high possibility to be optimized at low speeds and high loads. In these conditions fuel consumption and pollutants emission should be reduced maintaining the performance levels. This optimization can be realized only improving the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. It is known that, during the fuel injection phase in PFI SI engines, thin films of liquid fuel can form on the valves surface and on the cylinder walls. Successively the fuel films interact with the intake manifold and the combustion chamber gas flow. During the normal combustion process, it is possible to achieve gas temperature and mixture strength conditions that lead to fuel film ignition. This phenomenon can create diffusion-controlled flames that can persist well after the normal combustion event. These flames induce the emission of soot and unburned hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distributions from a DI High Performance SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline-Ethanol Blended Fuels

2011-09-11
2011-24-0211
This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on the combustion characteristics and exhaust particulate emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with blends of bio-ethanol and European gasoline fuel. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at fixed speed and load, namely 1500 rpm and 110 Nm, and fuelled with gasoline (E0), ethanol (E100) and two blends 50% v/v (E50) and 85% v/v (E85) of ethanol in gasoline. Two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge and stratified charge combustion mode. The study mainly focuses on the effects of fuel injection strategy and ethanol upon the emissions of particulate matter (PM), in terms of mass, number concentration and size distribution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Nanoparticles Emissions in a Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0208
In the recent years, growing attention has been focused on internal combustion engines, considered as the main sources of Particulate Matter (PM) in urban air. Small particles are associated to fine dust formation in the atmosphere and to pulmonary diseases. The legislation proposes a stronger restriction in terms of particulate mass concentrations for both Diesel and gasoline engines and a limitation on number concentration. Unfortunately, the experimental evaluation of particles number and size is a hard task as they are strongly affected by the dilution conditions, due to condensation and nucleation phenomena, which may occur during the sampling. Even if a considerable amount of basic research on particulate matter emitted by engines has been carried out, the mechanisms governing particle formation are still not fully understood, neither for Diesel nor for gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Wall Impingement Process of a Multi-Hole GDI Spray: Experimental and Numerical Investigation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1266
The Direct Injection (DI) of gasoline in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is very attractive for fuel economy and performance improvements in spark ignition engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) offers the possibility of multi-mode operation, homogeneous and stratified charge, with benefits respect to conventional SI engines as higher compression ratio, zero pumping losses, control of the ignition process at very lean air-fuel mixture and good cold starting. The impingement of liquid fuel on the combustion chamber wall is generally one of the major drawbacks of GDI engines because its increasing of HC emissions and effects on the combustion process; in the wall guided engines an increasing attention is focusing on the fuel film deposits evolution and their role in the soot formation. Hence, the necessity of a detailed understanding of the spray-wall impingement process and its effects on the fuel distribution. The experimental results provide a fundamental data base for CFD predictions.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of Methane Combustion in a Four Stroke Engine for Two Wheel Application

2012-04-16
2012-01-1150
In the urban area the internal combustion engines are the main source of CO₂, NO and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The reduction of these emissions is no more an option, but a necessity highlighted by the even stricter emission standards. In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels. They allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. With regards to the gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels because of the lower C/H ratio. In this paper the effect of the methane on the combustion process, the pollutant emissions and the engine performance was analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection, four-stroke SI engine equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine and fuelled both with gasoline and methane.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of the Effect on the Combustion Process of Butanol-Gasoline Blend in a PFI SI Boosted Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0057
The addition of alcohol to conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark-ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. In this work, the influence of butanol addition to gasoline was investigated. The experiments were performed in an optical ported fuel injection single-cylinder SI engine with an external boosting device. The engine was equipped with the head of a commercial SI turbocharged engine having the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke and compression ratio). The effect of a blend of 20% of n-butanol and 80% of gasoline (BU20) on in-cylinder combustion process was investigated by cycle-resolved visualization. The engine worked at low speed, medium boosting and wide open throttle. Changes in spark timing and fuel injection phasing were considered. Comparisons between the flame luminosity and the combustion pressure data were performed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Combustion processes and Particle Emissions in a GDI/PFI Small Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1382
The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Alcohol Sprays from Multi-Hole Injector for DISI Engines through PIV Technique

2015-04-14
2015-01-0927
The use of alcohols as alternative to gasoline for fuelling spark-ignition (SI) engines is widespread. Growing interest is paid for n-butanol because of its characteristics that are similar to gasoline. If compared with other alcohols, n-butanol has higher energy content and miscibility with gasoline, lower hygroscope and corrosive properties making it an attractive solution for gasoline replacement. Even if several studies have been conduced to characterize the n-butanol combustion within Spark Ignition engines, few data are available on atomization and spray behavior. This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to characterize the velocity vector field of two fuel-sprays injected by a 6-hole nozzle for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. 2D Mie-scattering and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an optically accessible vessel at ambient temperature and pressure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Control Parameters in an Optical DISI Engine with Gasoline-Butanol Fueling

2015-09-01
2015-01-1944
Effects of n-butanol on the combustion process in a direct injection spark ignition engine were investigated through flame visualization and spectroscopy. An optically accessible engine was equipped for the trials with a commercial cylinder head and wall guided injection system. Injection pressure (100 bar) and engine speed (2000 rpm) were fixed while injection timing and duration were changed to realise stoichiometric and lean fuelling in homogenous charge conditions. Specifically, UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to study the flame front inception and propagation with particular interest in the early combustion stages. UV-visible natural emission spectroscopy was applied to investigate the formation and the evolution of the main chemical compounds characterizing the spark ignition and combustion processes. Detailed image processing allowed to correlate the morphology and the local flame front curvature with thermodynamic data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

Plasma Assisted Ignition Effects on a DISI Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Butanol under Lean Conditions and with EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0710
Considering the generalized diversification of the energy mix, the use of alcohols as gasoline replacement is proposed as a viable option. Also, alternative control strategies for spark ignition engines (SI) such as lean operation and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are used on an ever wider scale for improving fuel economy and reducing the environmental impact of automotive engines. In order to increase the stability of these operating points, alternative ignition systems are currently investigated. Within this context, the present work deals about the use of plasma assisted ignition (PAI) in a direct injection (DI) SI engine under lean conditions and cooled EGR, with gasoline and n-butanol fueling. The PAI system was tested in an optically accessible single-cylinder DISI engine equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged power unit with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
Technical Paper

Impinging Jets of Fuel on a Heated Surface: Effects of Wall Temperature and Injection Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0863
In spark ignition engines, the nozzle design, fuel pressure, injection timing, and interaction with the cylinder/piston walls govern the evolution of the fuel spray inside the cylinder before the start of combustion. The fuel droplets, hitting the surface, may rebound or stick forming a film on the wall, or evaporate under the heat exchange effect. The face wetting results in a strong impact on the mixture formation and emission, in particular, on particulate and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior, atomization, and vaporization of impinging sprays on the metal surface. A mono-component fuel, iso-octane, was adopted in the spray-wall studies inside an optically-accessible quiescent vessel by imaging procedures using a Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up in combination with a high-speed C-Mos camera.
Technical Paper

Carbureted SI Engine Air Flow Measurements

2016-04-05
2016-01-1082
Measurement of internal combustion engine air flow is challenging due to the required modification of the intake system and subsequent change in the air flow pattern. In this paper, various surge tank volumes were investigated to improve the accuracy of measuring air flow rate into a 674-cm3, four-stroke, liquid-cooled, internal combustion engine. According to the experimental results, when the venturi meter is used to measure the intake air flow rate, an air surge tank is required to be installed downstream of the venturi to smoothen the air flow. Moreover, test results revealed that increasing air surge tank volume beyond a limit could have a negative effect on the engine performance parameters especially in carbureted engines where controlling AFR is difficult. Although the air flow rate into the engine changed with increasing tank volume, the air-fuel ratio was leaner for smaller tank volumes.
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