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Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of an Ethanol DI - Gasoline PFI and Gasoline DI - Gasoline PFI Dual Fuel Small Displacement SI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0848
The aim of the paper is the comparison of the performance, gaseous and particle emissions from different injection configurations and fuels. The engine was operated in port fuel injection (PFI), direct injection (DI) and dual fuel (DF). For DF, ethanol DI-gasoline PFI and gasoline DI-gasoline PFI strategies were performed to discern the effect of injection strategy from the effect of the fuel. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. The gaseous and particle emissions were measured at the exhaust by means of a gas analyzer and a smoke meter.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Emissions and Performance of a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0891
The present paper describes the results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of nozzle flow number on a Euro5 automotive diesel engine, featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control. In order to optimize the trade-offs between fuel economy, combustion noise, emissions and power density for the next generation diesel engines, general trend among OEMs is lowering nozzle flow number and, as a consequence, nozzle hole size. In this context, three nozzle configurations have been characterized on a 2.0L Euro5 Common Rail Diesel engine, coupling experimental activities performed on multi-cylinder and optical single cylinder engines to analysis on spray bomb and injector test rigs. More in detail, this paper deeply describes the investigation carried out on the multi-cylinder engine, specifically devoted to the combustion evolution and engine performance analysis, varying the injector flow number.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Spray Formation and Combustion Evolution by Optical Diagnostics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0701
The present paper describes an experimental investigation over the impact of diesel injector nozzle flow number on spray formation and combustion evolution for a modern EURO5 light-duty diesel engine. The analysis has been carried out by coupling the investigations in non evaporative spray bomb to tests in optical single cylinder engine in firing conditions. The research activity, which is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori Napoli - CNR and GM Powertrain Europe, is devoted to understanding the basic operating behaviour of low flow number nozzles which are showing promising improvements in diesel engine behaviour at partial load. In fact, because of the compelling need to push further emission, efficiency, combustion noise and power density capabilities of the last-generation diesel engines, the combination of high injection pressure fuel pumps and low flow number nozzles is general trend among major OEMs.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injection Pressure on the Combustion Performance and Emissions of Small GDI Engine Fuelled with Bio-Ethanol

2011-06-09
2011-37-0007
Non-intrusive measurements were carried out in an optical spark ignition GDI engine in order to characterize the chemical and physical processes involved using gasoline and bio-ethanol fuel. In particular, an optical 4 strokes small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles was used. It was equipped with an elongated piston with a wide sapphire window in the head and quartz cylinder. Exhaust emissions and engine performances were evaluated during the imaging and spectral measurements in order to investigate the spray characteristics and flame propagation with high spatial and temporal resolution. Several engine conditions based on homogeneous charge mixture conditions were investigated considering the effect of injection pressure and ethanol fuel too. The simultaneous use of the high injection pressure and bio-ethanol showed to be a valid answer to reduction of pollutants without worsening the performances.
Technical Paper

Effect of Port Injected Ethanol on Combustion Characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1692
Nowadays, alcoholic fuels gain increased interest as alternative transportation biofuel even in compression ignition engines due to the fact that they contain oxygen and can be produced in a sustainable way. Furthermore, due to their lower CN (Cetane Number) they suit better for premixed combustion applications. Experimental research was conducted on a single cylinder engine provided with modern engine architecture modified for DF (Dual-Fuel) purposes. The authors have investigated the use of ethanol in a DF engine in order to exploit its well-known advantages in premixed combustion mode. The DF approach appears to be a promising solution because it permits flexible control of the premixed fuel fraction regardless from the operating conditions. This improves the exploitation of the ethanol potential according the engine working conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Combustion processes and Particle Emissions in a GDI/PFI Small Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1382
The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - AFR and EGR Dilution Effects

2015-09-29
2015-01-2808
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions while maintaining durability. Transforming part of the vehicle fleet to NG is a path to reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - Start of Injection and Spark Timing Effects

2015-09-29
2015-01-2813
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US), and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining durability. This is a potential path to help the US reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe; however, this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol and Gasoline Blending and Dual Fueling on Engine Performance and Emissions.

2015-09-06
2015-24-2490
Ethanol is the most promising alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines, that is blended with gasoline, typically. Moreover, in the last years great attention is paid to the dual fueling, ethanol and gasoline are injected simultaneously. This paper aims to analyze the better methods, blending or dual fueling in order to best exploit the potential of ethanol in improving engine performance and reducing pollutant emissions. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000, 4000, and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the European homologation urban driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ethanol-Gasoline Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Small SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2620
The growing concerns over the pollutant emissions as well as the depletion of fossil fuel led to the research of advanced combustion mode and alternative fuels for the reduction both of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The dual-fuel injection system can be used to improve the engine performance and reduce the fossil fuel consumption performing simultaneously a direct-injection (DI) and a port-fuel-injection (PFI) of different fuels. Ethanol is one of the most promising alternative fuels for SI engines. It offers high anti-knock quality because of the high octane number; moreover, being an oxygenated fuel is very effective in particle emissions reduction. On the other hand, it is characterized by lower energy density mainly because of the low lower heating value (LHV). The aim of the paper is the investigation of the ethanol-gasoline dual fuel combustion on engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - Nozzle Included Angle Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0781
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost versus diesel fuel has increased interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and increase operating range while reduce harmful emissions and maintaining durability. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for light duty LD, and MD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe [1]. However, this technology exhibits poor thermal efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon that has prohibited its use for HD engines. Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) can be used to create a partially stratified combustion (PSC) mixture of NG and air during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Ethanol Blends Combustion Processes and Soot Formation in a GDI Optical Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1316
This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of fuel properties on soot formation in a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in an optical 4-stroke small single cylinder engine for two-wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with an elongated piston with a wide sapphire window in the head and a quartz cylinder liner. The engine was fuelled with pure gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 20% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. Optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the combustion process and soot formation. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to assess the soot evolution. Radical species such as OH and CH, related to fuel quality and to soot formation/oxidation process, were detected. Measurements were carried out at various engine speeds and loads in order to allow optical measurements and to test the engine in real conditions.
Journal Article

Assessment of a New Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Combustion Model for the Spray and Soot Formation Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0044
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.
Journal Article

Spray Formation and Combustion Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Engine Operating with Fresh and Aged Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1381
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized RME at two levels of blending on spray formation and combustion in modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on an optical single-cylinder engine sharing combustion system configuration with the 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application. Two blends (B50 and B100) blending were tested for both fresh and aged RME and compared with commercial diesel fuel in two different operating points typical of NEDC (1500rpm/2bar BMEP and 2000rpm/5bar BMEP). The experimental activity was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the spray density, breakup and penetration, mixture formation, combustion and soot formation, by means of optical techniques.
Journal Article

Spray and Soot Formation Analysis by Means of a Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Model in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Euro 4 Operating Conditions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2416
An investigation has been carried out on the spray penetration and soot formation processes in a research diesel engine by means of a quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model. The model integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model, and is capable of predicting the spray formation, combustion and soot formation processes in the combustion chamber. The multizone model was used to analyze three operating conditions, i.e., a zero load point (BMEP = 0 bar at 1000 rpm), a medium load point (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) and a medium-high load point (BMEP = 10 bar at 2000 rpm). These conditions were experimentally tested in an optical single cylinder engine with the combustion system configuration of a 2.0L Euro4 GM diesel engine for passenger car applications.
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