Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Influence of Catalyst Performance on Car Emissions in Urban Congested Traffic

1997-05-01
971604
A reason of the lack of agreement between measured pollutants concentration in the air of urban areas and vehicle pollutant emissions evaluated by available emission models is the fact that catalyst performance variability is not considered. In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of performance variability of catalyst on emissions is presented. Average emissions have been measured using driving cycles representative of different levels of urban traffic, determined by statistical methods on the basis of data detected on-road by an instrumented car. For each driving cycle, representative of a certain traffic level, different thermal starting conditions of catalyst have been tested. These conditions have been determined by the characterization of catalyst performance at steady state and are representative of real catalyst conditions experienced on the road.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Congested Urban Traffic

1995-10-01
952401
In this paper, first results regarding measurements of fuel consumption and emissions, relative to different traffic conditions and a specific urban area, are presented. The experimental approach used for the evaluation of emissions consists in: a) recording on-road car and engine operating conditions during designed trips performed in the center of Naples (Italy) by an instrumented car, b) determining by multivariate statistical analysis driving cycles characterizing typical traffic conditions, c) measuring emissions and fuel consumption in laboratory using defined driving cycles. Fuel flow rate measurements are performed at each second, while emissions are detected along a cycle and an average value per kilometer is obtained. Operating conditions of engine during laboratory testing are related to on-road operating conditions by comparing fuel consumption and exhaust gases temperatures measurements performed on-road and in laboratory by the same device.
Technical Paper

Chaos Theory Approach as Advanced Technique for GDI Spray Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0839
The paper reports an innovative method of analysis based on an advanced statistical techniques applied to images captured by a high-speed camera that allows highlighting phenomena and anomalies hardly detectable by conventional optical diagnostic techniques. The images, previously elaborated by neural network tools in order for clearly identifying the contours, have been analyzed in their time evolution as pseudo-chaotic variables that may have internal periodic components. In addition to the Fourier analysis, tools as Lyapunov and Hurst exponents and average Kω permitted to detect the chaos level of the signals. The use of this technique has permitted to distinguish periodic oscillations from chaotic variations and to detect those parameters that actually determine the spray behavior.
Technical Paper

Statistical Investigation of In Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measured by PEM on Different Gasoline Cars

2013-04-08
2013-01-1511
In this paper some results relative to tests performed on road with a Fiat Panda Bipower, (CNG and gasoline powered), and a New Panda Twin Air with auto Start & Stop system, are presented. Gaseous emissions are measured with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) on two different urban routes, in terms of traffic and slope characteristics during in use experiments. PEMS testing offers an easy and efficient way to evaluate the vehicle emissions over a huge variety of conditions and provides us a direct way to study the in-use emissions of combustion engines, when you want to verify the effect of the traffic and of a particular device on fuel economy and emissions reduction. Moreover now PEMS performances are very comparable to those obtained by standard laboratory instrumentation systems.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design of an Intake Filter Box for a Downsized VVA Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1693
The present paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses of the air-filter box of a turbocharged VVA engine, aiming to predict and improve the gas-dynamic noise emissions through a partial re-design of the device. First of all, the gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth is measured during a dedicated experimental campaign. The developed 1D and 3D models are then validated at full load operation, based on experimental data. In particular, 1D model provides a preliminary evaluation of the radiated noise and simultaneously gives reliable boundary conditions for the unsteady 3D CFD simulations. The latter indeed allow to better take into account the geometrical details of the air-filter and guarantee a more accurate gas-dynamic noise prediction. 3D CFD analyses put in evidence that sound emission mainly occur within a frequency range of 350 to 450 Hz.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Logic Approach to GDI Spray Characterization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0874
Advanced numerical techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks have been applied in this work to digital images acquired on a mono-component fuel spray (iso-octane), in order to define, in a stochastic way, the gas-liquid interface evolution. The image is a numerical matrix and so it is possible to characterize geometrical parameters and the time evolution of the jet by using deterministic, statistical stochastic and other several kinds of approach. The algorithm used works with the fuzzy logic concept to binarize the shades gray of the pixel, depending them, by using the schlieren technique, on the gas density. Starting from a primary fixed threshold, the applied technique, can select the ‘gas’ pixel from the ‘liquid’ pixel and so it is possible define the first most probably boundary lines of the spray.
Technical Paper

Statistical Models of RADAR and LIDAR Returns from Deer for Active Safety Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0113
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection in a Turbocharged S.I. Engine Based on ARMA Technique and Chemical Kinetics

2013-10-14
2013-01-2510
During the last years, a number of techniques aimed at the experimental identification of the knocking onset in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines have been proposed. Besides the traditional procedures based on the processing of in-cylinder pressure data in the frequency domain, in the present paper two innovative methods are developed and compared. The first one is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique, coupled to a prediction algorithm. It is shown that such parametric model, applied to the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure measurements, is highly sensitive to knock occurrence and is able to identify soft or heavy knock presence in different engine operating conditions. An alternative, more expensive procedure is developed and compared to the previous one.
Technical Paper

Improving Acoustic Performance of an Air Filter Box. TL Analysis and Device Optimization

2016-06-15
2016-01-1813
The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
Technical Paper

Statistical Determination of Local Driving Cycles Based on Experimental Campaign as WLTC Real Approach

2017-09-04
2017-24-0138
In the context of a transport sustainability, some solutions could be proposed from the integration of many disciplines, architects, environmentalists, policy makers, and consequently it may be addressed with different approaches. These solutions would be applied at different geographical levels, i.e. national, regional or urban scale. Moreover, the assessment of cars emissions in real use plays a fundamental role for their reductions. This is also the direction of the new harmonized test procedures (WLTP). Furthermore, it is fundamental to keep in mind that the new WLTC cycle will reproduce a situation closer to the reality comparing to the EUDC/NEDC driving cycle. In this paper, we will be focused on vehicle kinematic evaluation aimed at valuation of traffic situation and emissions.
Technical Paper

A “Dynamic System” Approach for the Experimental Characterization of a Multi-Hole Spray

2017-09-04
2017-24-0106
The analysis of a spray behavior is confined to study the fluid dynamic parameters such as axial and radial velocity of the droplets, size distribution of the droplets, and geometrical aspect as the penetration length. In this paper, the spray is considered like a dynamic system and consequently it can be described by a number of parameters that characterize its dynamic behavior. The parameter chosen to describe the dynamic behavior is the external cone angle. This parameter has been detected by using an experimental injection chamber, a multi-hole (8 holes) injector for GDI applications and recorded by a high-speed C-Mos camera. The images have been elaborated by a fuzzy logic and neural network algorithm and are processed by using a chaos deterministic theory. This procedure carries out a map distribution of the working point of the spray and determines the stable (signature of the spray) and instable behavior.
Technical Paper

Refining Vibration Quality - A Study Characterizing Vehicle/Operator Interface Vibration on Snowmobiles and ATVs

2007-05-15
2007-01-2389
Sensory jury testing was utilized to characterize vibration levels perceived by the operator, with respect to levels measured using instrumentation, in order to develop a tool for the evaluation of vibration at the operator interfaces. Details of the jury testing and jury data processing method are highlighted as well as the refinement of vibration characterization for a specific application. The vibration at user interface locations of both snowmobiles and ATVs was measured along with subjective feedback from a panel of jurists. Statistical analysis was performed on the jury data to provide both a qualitative and quantitative number to represent the opinion of the jury. Correlations were developed between the measured levels of vibration and the opinions of the jury. Finally, a set of correlation functions suitable for design predictions was developed.
Technical Paper

Complementary Intersection Method (CIM) for System Reliability Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0558
Researchers desire to evaluate system reliability uniquely and efficiently. Despite its strong technical demand, little progress has been made on system reliability analysis in the last two decades. Up to now, bound methods for system reliability prediction have been dominant. For system reliability bounds, the second order bound method gives fairly accurate prediction for system reliability assuming that the probabilities of second-order joint events are accurately obtained. Two primary challenges in system reliability analysis are evaluation of the probabilities of second-order joint events and no unique system reliability for design optimization. Firstly, the greatest technical demand is found in an accurate and efficient method to numerically evaluate the probability of a second-order joint event.
Technical Paper

Innovative Six Sigma Design Using the Eigenvector Dimension-Reduction (EDR) Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0799
This paper presents an innovative approach for quality engineering using the Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method. Currently industry relies heavily upon the use of the Taguchi method and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratios as quality indices. However, some disadvantages of the Taguchi method exist such as, its reliance upon samples occurring at specified levels, results to be valid at only the current design point, and its expensiveness to maintain a certain level of confidence. Recently, it has been shown that the EDR method can accurately provide an analysis of variance, similar to that of the Taguchi method, but is not hindered by the aforementioned drawbacks of the Taguchi method. This is evident because the EDR method is based upon fundamental statistics, where the statistical information for each design parameter is used to estimate the uncertainty propagation through engineering systems.
Journal Article

Real Time Emissive Behaviour of a Bi-Fuel Euro 4 SI Car in Naples Urban Area

2013-09-08
2013-24-0173
An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the influence of CNG and gasoline on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a bi-fuel passenger car over on-road tests performed in the city of Naples. The chosen route is very traffic congested during the daytime of experimental measurements. An on-board analyzer was used to measure CO, CO2, NOx tailpipe concentrations and the exhaust flow rate. Throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust pollutants, the fuel consumption was estimated. The exact spatial position was acquired by a GPS which allowed to calculate vehicle speed and the traffic condition was monitored by a video camera. Whole trip realized by the vehicle was subdivided in succession of kinematic sequences and the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were analyzed and presented as value on each kinematic sequence. Moreover, throughout a multivariate statistical analysis of sequences, the driving cycles characterizing the use of vehicle were identified.
Journal Article

Analysis of Knock Tendency in a Small VVA Turbocharged Engine Based on Integrated 1D-3D Simulations and Auto-Regressive Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1065
In the present paper, two different methodologies are adopted and critically integrated to analyze the knock behavior of a last generation small size spark ignition (SI) turbocharged VVA engine. Particularly, two full load operating points are selected, exhibiting relevant differences in terms of knock proximity. On one side, a knock investigation is carried out by means of an Auto-Regressive technique (AR model) to process experimental in-cylinder pressure signals. This mathematical procedure is used to estimate the statistical distribution of knocking cycles and provide a validation of the following 1D-3D knock investigations. On the other side, an integrated numerical approach is set up, based on the synergic use of 1D and 3D simulation tools. The 1D engine model is developed within the commercial software GT-Power™. It is used to provide time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the 3D code, Star-CD™.
Journal Article

Multi-Physics Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Speakers

2017-06-05
2017-01-1816
Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
Journal Article

Knock and Cycle by Cycle Analysis of a High Performance V12 Spark Ignition Engine. Part 1: Experimental Data and Correlations Assessment

2015-09-06
2015-24-2392
In this paper, a high performance V12 spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to fully characterize its behavior in terms of both average parameters, cycle-by-cycle variations and knock tendency, for different operating conditions. In particular, for each considered operating point, a spark advance sweep is actuated, starting from a knock-free calibration, up to intense knock operation. Sequences of 300 consecutive pressure cycles are measured for each cylinder, together with the main overall engine performance, including fuel flow, torque, and fuel consumption. Acquired data are statistically analyzed to derive the distributions of main indicated parameters, in order to find proper correlations with ensemble-averaged quantities. In particular, the Coefficient of Variation (CoV) of IMEP and of the in-cylinder peak pressure (pmax) are correlated to the average combustion phasing and duration (MFB50 and Δθb), with a good coefficient of determination.
Journal Article

Knock Detection Based on MAPO Analysis, AR Model and Discrete Wavelet Transform Applied to the In-Cylinder Pressure Data: Results and Comparison

2014-10-13
2014-01-2547
The easiest way to identify knock conditions during the operation of a SI engine is represented by the knowledge of the in-cylinder pressure. Traditional techniques like MAPO (Maximum Amplitude Pressure Oscillation) based method rely on the frequency domain processing of the pressure data. This technique may present uncertainties due to the correct specification of some model parameters, like the band-pass frequency range and the crank angle window of interest. In this paper two innovative techniques for knock detection, which make use of the in-cylinder pressure, are explained in detail, and the results are compared with those coming from the MAPO method. The first procedure is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive (AR) technique, while the second technique makes use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The data useful for the analysis have been acquired on a high compression ratio four cylinder, spark ignition engine.
X