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Technical Paper

Trend toward weight reduction of automobile body in Japan

2000-06-12
2000-05-0240
With society demanding automobiles that provide higher fuel efficiency, safety of occupants in collisions and that at the end of their service life can be recycled with low environmental impact, the steel industry is tackling the needs of the automobile industry by developing ever-higher performance steel materials and simulation technologies that can demonstrate the performance of steel materials at the development stage without the need for costly prototype testing. In this paper, weight reduction of automobile body in Japan will be discussed. The main items will be as follows: (1) Development of Automobile Steel Sheets, (2) Materials for Automobile Bodies, (3) Materials and Technologies (Tailored Blanks, Hydroforming and Locally Quenching) for Reducing the Weight of Panels and Reinforcing members, (4) Future Prospects.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Corrosion Durability of Steel Systems for Automobile Fuel Tanks.

2005-04-11
2005-01-0540
The Strategic Alliance for Steel Fuel Tanks (SASFT), an international group of steel producers and manufacturing companies, recently completed a major corrosion study of various steel ‘systems’ for automobile fuel tanks. The ten steel systems included low carbon steels (either pre-painted or post-painted with protective coatings) and stainless steels. The 2-year corrosion test program included testing in salt solutions to simulate road environments for the exterior of a fuel tank. Special test specimens were designed to represent a manufactured tank. The external tests used were the Neutral Salt Spray test (ASTM B117) with exposures up to 2000 hours and the Cyclic Corrosion test (SAE J2334) with exposures up to 120 and 160 cycles to represent vehicle lives of 15 years and 20 years, respectively. Additionally, the resistance to an aggressive ethanol-containing fuel (internal tank corrosion) was assessed by using uniquely designed drawn cups of the various steel systems.
Technical Paper

A Study of Sheet Hydro-forming Using High Strength Steel Sheets

2006-04-03
2006-01-0546
Sheet hydro-forming was applied to hydro-form a door outer panel using different steel grades. The effect of mechanical properties and the forming conditions on panel properties such as thickness profile and cross-sectional shape accuracy were investigated by both experimental sheet hydro-forming and FEM forming analysis. 590MPa T.S. steel grade was successfully formed with improved dent resistance compared to the conventional 340MPa T.S. steel grade. On the other hand, the results of the FEM forming process analysis showed that the pre-forming conditions were important in controlling the fracture formation during forming and to improve dent resistance, which successfully led to the best forming condition.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Experiments and FEM Simulation of High Velocity Tensile Test Methods to Clarify Test Method's Influence of High Strength Steel

2000-10-03
2000-01-2725
In order to examine the compatibility of improvement of crashworthiness with weight-saving of automobiles by using high strength steel, a combination analysis of Finite Element Method and Dynamic Mechanical Properties has been established. The material properties used in this analysis have been measured by “one bar method” high velocity tensile tests, which can examine the deformation behaviour of materials at an actual crash speed range (∼55km/h). As for the accuracy of this system, comparison between experiments and FEM simulation both of this test machine and other high-velocity-tensile-test machines have clarified the feature of one bar method and the metallurgical features of high velocity deformation. It was confirmed that the stress-strain curve measured by the one bar method agreed with that measured by the modified Split Hopkinson pressure bar method.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness Improvement of the Side Crash by the Work Hardening Effect of Pre-Strained High Strength Steel

2001-10-16
2001-01-3112
In order to examine the compatibility of improvement of crashworthiness with weight saving of automobiles by using high strength steel, a combination analysis of Finite Element Method and Dynamic Mechanical Properties has been established. Material properties used in this analysis have been measured by “one bar method” high velocity tensile tests, which can examine the deformation behavior of materials at a bend crush speed range (∼55km/h). It was confirmed that the strength of steel measured by one bar method was raised remarkably after press and hydro forming of high strength steels. It was also confirmed by FEM analysis and load drop test that absorbed energy of bend crush was improved by pre-strain effect. Further, we proved that absorbed energy of bend crush was also improved by appropriate design of thickness and the ratio of bend span and plate length. These effects are applicable to respective high strength steels.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurements of the Components of VOCs and PAHs in Diesel Exhaust Gas using a Laser Ionization Method

2009-06-15
2009-01-1842
A simple real-time measurement system for the components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in automobile exhaust gas using a laser ionization method was developed. This method was used to detect VOCs and PAHs in the exhaust gas of a diesel truck while idling, at 60 km/h, and in the Japanese driving mode JE05. As a result, various VOCs and PAHs, such as xylene and naphthalene, were simultaneously detected, and real-time changes in their concentration were obtained at 1 s intervals.
Technical Paper

Properties of a Newly Developed Galvannealed Steel Sheet with Modified Surface

2011-04-12
2011-01-1056
Since galvannealed steel sheets (GA) are widely used for automobile body parts, they require excellent features such as press formability, resistant spot weldability and phosphatability. We have focused on improving the press formability of GA since the late 1990s, and have developed a new type of surface modified GA which has a lower friction coefficient than conventional GA. The developed surface modified GA based on mild steel is now used by all automakers in Japan, especially for those parts such as side panels that are difficult to form. This paper describes the features of the surface modified GA.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Fatigue Properties of Hot-Rolled Sheet Steels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0042
The influence of tensile strength on fatigue strength and the effect of strengthening mechanism on fatigue notch factor were investigated into conventional mild steels, HSLA steels, DP steels and TRIP steels. The grade of studied steels was altered from 440MPa to 780MPa. Not only smooth fatigue specimens with side surface ground and smooth fatigue specimens with laser-cut side surface but also fatigue specimens with a pierced hole were prepared for each of steel sheets. Fatigue tests were conducted in an axial load method. These experiments made it clear that the fatigue limits of smooth specimen increase along the tensile strength approximately independent of strengthening mechanism but those of notched specimen do not necessarily increase along the tensile strength. Namely, fatigue limits of DP steels and TRIP steels with notch increase in proportion to tensile strength although those of HSLA steels with notch do not increase.
Technical Paper

A Study of Topology Optimization for Spot-Welding Locations in Automotive Body by Using Driving Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0830
An automotive body is made by joining over 500 components made from steel sheets. Since the joining locations for spot-welding are decided by the designer of each component, the number of spot-welding points tends to be either excessive or inadequate for the required automotive body stiffness. In this study, a topology method which is able to select effectively from design space was applied to optimization of spot-welding locations for vehicle stiffness performance by using a full vehicle model. Static stiffness using constraint of nodes cannot sufficiently express deformation during driving. Torsional deformation occurred in all parts of the body in the mode in which one point of the front bilateral suspension parts was forced and the other three points were constrained in the general static stiffness mode.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet For Automotive Use

1989-02-01
890708
Vibration Damping Steel Sheet (VDSS) for automotive use, which has a three layer structure of steel/viscoelastic resin/steel, has been studied. For automotive body panels, VDSS is required to have not only high vibration damping capability but also other properties such as bonding strength, formability, weldability and durability. In this research, the effect of resin layer on these properties was studied. It is found that VDSS which satisfies these properties can be made from thermosetting resin involving metal particles.
Journal Article

Ductile Fracture from Spot Weld and Flange Edge in Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0365
A simple testing method is proposed in order to investigate ductile fracture in crashed automotive components made from advanced high strength steels. This type of fracture is prone to occur at spot-welded joints and flange edges. It is well known that the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a weak point in high strength steel due to the formation of annealed material around the spot-welded nugget, and the flange edge also has low ductility due to the damage caused by shearing. The proposed method is designed to simulate a ductile fracture which initiates from a spot-welded portion or a sheared edge in automotive components which are deformed in a crash event. Automotive steel sheets with a wide range of tensile strengths from 590MPa to 1470MPa are examined in order to investigate the effect of material strength on fracture behavior. The effects of material cutting methods, namely, machining and shearing, are also investigated.
Journal Article

Development of Carburizing Steel for Innovation in Parts Manufacturing Process

2017-03-28
2017-01-0378
In order to develop a new carburizing steel material that realizes an intermediate heat treatment-free process in parts manufacturing, the cold forgeability of the as-rolled steel and suppression of abnormal grain growth of austenite were studied. It was shown that adjustment of addition amount of Si, Mn and Cr, suppression of dynamic strain aging during cold forging, and an increase of ferrite fraction by controlled rolling contribute to the reduction of deformation resistance. However, Nb precipitation control by fully utilizing mill manufacturing processes was also necessary for suppression of abnormal grain growth of austenite. A new steel for carburizing was developed by integrating these technologies, making it possible to eliminate annealing before cold forging and normalizing before carburizing simultaneously. Thus, the developed steel is an important innovation in the parts manufacturing process.
Technical Paper

New 440MPa High-Strength Steel for Vehicle Outer-Panel

2003-10-27
2003-01-2832
New 440MPa class high-strength steel, which had high r-value(1.6) and elongation(38%), was applied to outer-panel for the first time in the world. In this development FEM simulation was carried out to clarify the necessary steel properties, and the production conditions in strip mill were established. 10-kg weight reduction was realized by using this steel.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Stress Calculation in Spot Welded Joint and Its Application to Fatigue Life Prediction of Actual Vehicle

2003-10-27
2003-01-2809
A method of fatigue life prediction of spot welded joint under multi-axial loads has been developed by fatigue life estimation working groups in the committee on fatigue strength and structural reliability of JSAE. This method is based on the concept of nominal structural stress ( σ ns) proposed by Radaj and Rupp, and improved so that D value is not involved in stress calculation. The result of fatigue life estimation of actual vehicle with nominal structural stress which was calculated through newly developed method had very good correlation with the result of multi-axial loads fatigue test carried out with test piece including high strength steel.
Technical Paper

Fatigue life prediction for welded steel sheet structures

2003-10-27
2003-01-2878
In this paper the fatigue life of welded steel sheet structures is predicted by using FE-Fatigue, which is one of fatigue analysis software tools on the market, and these predicted results are evaluated by reference to corresponding experimental results. Also, we try to predict these structures by using two fatigue life prediction theories established by the JSAE fatigue and reliability committee to compare prediction results. It was confirmed that spot welds fatigue life predictions agree qualitatively with corresponding experimental results and arc welds fatigue life predictions are in good agreement with corresponding experimental results in cases where the SN curve database is modified appropriately.
Journal Article

Deformation Mechanism of ERW Tubes in Newly Developed Bending Method “PRB”

2013-04-08
2013-01-1168
For the newly developed tube bending method termed “PRB,” finite element analyses (FEA) with solid elements were carried out to clarify the tube deformation mechanism in comparison with that in conventional rotary draw bending. The following results were obtained. 1 In the investigation of the strain and stress states both outside and inside the bend, it was found that plastic deformation in PRB was almost completed before the tube material entered the bend area. In rotary draw bending, plastic deformation developed in the bend area. 2 Regarding the effect of tube reduction in diameter by the pressure die in deformation of tubes, circumferential compressive deformation involving longitudinal tensile deformation is enhanced outside the bend.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mechanical Properties and Forming Conditions on Outer Panel Performances of High Strength Steel Sheets

2016-04-05
2016-01-0355
Although reduction of the thickness of materials used in the automobile body is important for weight reduction, reducing the thickness of outer panels deteriorates dent resistance and surface distortion. To investigate the potential for weight reduction, the factors which influence the surface distortion and dent resistance properties were evaluated quantitatively with the aim of securing these properties. The materials used in these experiments were a tensile strength (TS) 340MPa grade bake hardenable (BH) steel sheet, which is often used in door outers, and a TS 440MPa grade BH steel sheet for outer panels. Surface distortion increases as a result of higher yield point (YP). It is possible to suppress the increase in surface distortion by increasing the blank holding force (BHF) in press forming. However, because this reduces the BHF range to the forming limit, application of low YP material is considered to be more advantageous for suppressing surface distortion.
Technical Paper

Properties of Zn-Fe Alloy Electroplated Steel Sheets

1984-02-01
840214
We have taken notice of Zn-Fe alloy electroplating with an eye to developing new corrosion-resistant steel sheets for automotive use with both cosmetic corrosion resistance and perforating corrosion resistance, and as a result of investigations into its paintability and corrosion resistance over the whole range of its compositions, we have come to a conclusion that steel sheets with two-layer Zn-Fe alloy electroplating that consists of a thin upper layer with a 75 to 85% Fe content and a lower layer with a 10 to 20% Fe content is the best choice.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Carburizing Steel Bars for Saving Energy Consumption in the Automobile Industry

1982-02-01
820127
Carburizing heat treatment is one of the automobile component manufacturing steps, which consumes a large amount of energy. Raising the carburizing temperature can shorten the carburizing time and save the energy, but involves the risks of grain coarsening and attendant property deterioration. The authors have clarified the precipitation behavior of aluminum nitride (A1N) in the automobile gear manufacturing process and the optimum precipitation of A1N in as-rolled steel bars to prevent the grain coarsening. Through the application of the controlled rolling technique to ensure the optimum precipitation of A1N in continuously cast steel of uniform chemical composition, the authors have substantially saved energy while maintaining high quality, and developed a high-temperature carburizing steel expected to minimize and stabilize quenching strains.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

1992-02-01
920249
As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
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