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Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0428
Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Spot Welds Under Complex Combined Loading Conditions for Crash Applications

2002-07-09
2002-01-2032
Experiments to obtain the failure loads of spot welds are first reviewed under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A failure criterion is then presented for spot welds under combined opening and shear loading conditions based on the results from the experiments and a lower bound limit load analysis. In order to account for spot welds under more complex loading conditions, another lower bound limit load solution is presented to characterize the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads.
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