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Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of inlet valve timing on boosted gasoline HCCI with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2136
With boosted HCCI operation on gasoline using residual gas trapping, the amount of residuals was found to be of importance in determining the boundaries of stable combustion at various boost pressures. This paper represents a development of this approach by concentrating on the effects of inlet valve events on the parameters of boosted HCCI combustion with residual gas trapping. It was found that an optimum inlet valve timing could be found in order to minimize NOx emissions. When the valve timing is significantly advanced or retarded away from this optimum, NOx emissions increase due to the richer air / fuel ratios required for stable combustion. These richer conditions are necessary as a result of either the trapped residual gases becoming cooled in early backflow or because of lowering of the effective compression ratio. The paper also examines the feasibility of using inlet valve timing as a method of controlling the combustion phasing for boosted HCCI with residual gas trapping.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2129
The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Applying boosting to gasoline HCCI operation with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2121
The application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to naturally aspirated engines has shown a much reduced usable load range as compared to spark ignition (SI) engines. The approach documented here applies inlet charge boosting to gasoline HCCI operation on an engine configuration that is typical for SI gasoline engines, in conjunction with residual gas trapping. The latter helps to retain the benefits of much reduced requirement for external heating. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the level of boost pressure while varying the amount of trapped residual gas. In addition, it was found that there is a maximum amount of boost that can be applied without intake heating for any given amount of trapped residuals. NOx emissions decrease with increasing amounts of trapped residual.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Technical Paper

Split-Injection Strategies under Full-Load Using DMF, A New Biofuel Candidate, Compared to Ethanol in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0403
It is well known that direct injection (DI) is a technology enabler for stratified combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines. At full load or wide-open throttle (WOT), partial charge stratification can suppress knock, enabling greater spark advance and increased torque. Such split-injection or double-pulse injection strategies are employed when using gasoline in DI (GDI). However, as the use of biofuels is set to increase, is this mode still beneficial? In the current study, the authors attempt to answer this question using two gasoline-alternative biofuels: firstly, ethanol; the widely used gasoline-alternative biofuel and secondly, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF); the new biofuel candidate. These results have been benchmarked against gasoline in a single-cylinder, spray-guided DISI research engine at WOT (λ = 1 and 1500 rpm). Firstly, single-pulse start of injection (SOI) timing sweeps were conducted with each fuel to find the highest volumetric efficiency and IMEP.
Journal Article

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran

2012-04-16
2012-01-1285
Ethanol has long been regarded as the optimal gasoline-alternative biofuel for spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is used widely in Latin and North America and is increasingly accepted as an attractive option across Europe. Nevertheless, its low energy density requires a high rate of manufacture; in areas which are deficient of arable land, such rates might prove problematic. Therefore, fuels with higher calorific values, such as butanol or 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) deserve consideration; a similar yield to ethanol, in theory, would require much less land. This report addresses the suitability of DMF, to meet the needs as a biofuel substitute for gasoline in SI engines, using ethanol as the biofuel benchmark. Specific attention is given to the sensitivity of DMF to various engine control parameters: combustion phasing (ignition timing), injection timing, relative air-fuel ratio and valve timing (intake and exhaust).
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