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Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of Combustion Gas in a Spark Ignition Engine By Infrared Monochromatic Pyrometry

1989-11-01
891258
Instantaneous temperature of in-cylinder gas provides a lot of useful and local information for analyzing the combustion process in an internal combustion engine. From the standpoint of applicability to a practical engine, the infrared monochromatic radiation pyrometry required only a single optical window is considered to be more suitable comparing with the conventional infrared absorption-emission pyrometry with two optical windows. Then, the former pyrometer is used to measure the mean gas temperatures averaged on an optical path (or cylinder diameter) of a spark ignition engine connected to a prechamber with a torch nozzle of various area sizes. These measured temperature-crankangle diagrams not only clarify the influences of torch jet flow on the combustion processes, but also correspond well to the heat release rates calculated from the pressure diagrams.
Journal Article

Mixing-Controlled, Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Pressure Modulated Multiple-Injection for HSDI Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0609
This paper proposes a new mixing-controlled, low temperature combustion (LTC) approach for high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the excessively high pressure-rise rate (PRR) of premixed, kinetics-controlled LTC and to enable the low nitrogen oxides (NOx) combustion to operate over the wide speed and load range of the engine. To address the soot/noise trade-off at high load LTC operating conditions, the pressure modulated multiple-injection coupled with swirl control was applied. This injection strategy enables the injection of high pressure (HP) main spray into the local high temperature region of the already burning low pressure (LP) pilot spray injected from the neighboring injection hole. By employing this injection strategy, the equivalence ratio (φ) distribution of mixture is drastically varied during main combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles II

2007-07-23
2007-01-2039
JCAPII gasoline workgroup reported vehicle emission study to comprehend the impact of ETBE blending. In previous study, we focused on the compatibility of ETBE blended gasoline with Japanese current gasoline vehicles in-use. Based on recent discussion with ETBE 8% blended gasoline into the market, more information becomes necessary. In this second report, we studied to comprehend the actual emission impact using realistic model fuels using several base stocks. Fuel properties of T50, T90 and aromatic compound content were selected through discussions. Specifications were changed within the range of the market. Both ETBE 0% and 8% were combined for these fuel matrixes. In total, eight fuels and two reference fuels were tested. Two J-ULEV vehicles (one MPI, and a stoichiometric-SIDI) were procured as representatives. We discussed quantitative and qualitative impact toward emissions. Data regarding CO2 and fuel economy change were also reported.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

2007-07-23
2007-01-1952
Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2008-10-06
2008-01-2494
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

Methanol Lean Burn in an Auto-Ignition DI Engine

1998-02-23
980531
A new combustion system targeting a drastic decrease in NOx emission and a brake specific energy consumption equivalent to that of a DI diesel engine has been developed. In this new combustion system, a lean burn system using early injection was employed to reduce NOx emission and an auto-ignition DI engine system was employed to achieve the low energy consumption. Methanol was used as the fuel for reducing NOx emission. The objective of this study is to clarify the possibility of the system for the auto-ignition of a premixed lean mixture of methanol fuel. This study shows that the gas temperature at ignition, Tig, is the predominant factor affecting auto-ignition. Auto-ignition occurs when Tig exceeds approximately 1000K. The methanol lean burn system in an auto-ignition DI engine drastically decreased NOx emission with almost the same brake specific energy consumption as a diesel engine in the middle load region.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Commuter Concept Car “C-ta”

2011-05-17
2011-39-7220
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
Technical Paper

77 Basic Investigation of Particulate Matters (O-PM)) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Emitted by Two-stroke Motorcycles

2002-10-29
2002-32-1846
Characteristics of mass emission of unburned Oil-Particulate Matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from two-stroke scooter were investigated. The tests were carried out under with and without oxidation catalyst and various air-fuel ratio ranging from 12 to 16 at 50:1 of fuel-oil mixing ratio for easy sampling. Unburned Oil-Particulate Matter and 4- to 7-rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were trapped on filter. These compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Mass emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and unburned Oil-Particulate Matter tends to decrease as air-fuel ratio which increased up to stoichiometric ratio. The highest conversion ratio of unburned Oil-Particulate Matter on the oxidation catalyst was 64%. Conversion ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased as rings are smaller.
Technical Paper

Safety Evaluation on Fuel Cell Stacks Fire and Toxicity Evaluation of Material Combustion Gas for FCV

2007-04-16
2007-01-0435
Fuel cell vehicles represent a new system, and their safety has not yet been fully proved comparing with present automobile. Thorough safety evaluation is especially needed for the fuel system, which uses hydrogen as fuel, and the electric system, which uses a lot of electricity. The fuel cell stacks that are to be loaded on fuel cell vehicles generate electricity by reacting hydrogen and oxygen through electrolytic polymer membranes which is very thin. The safety of the fuel and electric systems should also be assessed for any abnormality that may be caused by electrolytic polymer membranes for any reasons. The purpose of our tests is to collect basic data to ultimately establish safety standards for fuel cell stacks. Methanol pool flame exposure tests were conducted on stationary use fuel cell stacks of two 200W to evaluate safety in the event of a fire.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4083
Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4082
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

2006-10-16
2006-01-3312
Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3397
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ferrocene on Engine and Vehicle Performance

2006-10-16
2006-01-3448
Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Urea SCR Systems on Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

2004-06-08
2004-01-1944
Four urea SCR systems were developed and evaluated on a C/D and on the road to investigate their potential for Japanese emission regulations in 2005 and beyond. Test results showed that NOx conversion ratios were 50 to 70% during the Japanese D13 mode cycle, and the ratios under the transient driving cycle were lower than those tested during a steady state. Unregulated emissions, such as benzene, aldehyde and benzo[a]pyrene, existed either at a trace level using the oxidation catalyst, or lower than a base diesel engine, when no oxidation catalyst was used. The health effects of particulate matter emitted from the SCR system were almost the same as those from conventional diesel engines, as evaluated by the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test. Thermal degradation products, such as cyanuric acid and melamine, were two to four figures lower compared with the toxicological information of Safety Information Resources Inc. (SIRI).
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Ash on Continuous Regeneration-type Diesel Particulate Filter - JCAPII Oil WG Report

2004-06-08
2004-01-1887
Impact of oil-derived ash on the pressure drop of continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) was investigated through 600hrs running test at maximum power point on a 6.9L diesel engine, which meets the Japanese long-term emission regulations enacted in 1998, using approximately 50ppm sulfur content fuel. Sulfated ash content of test oils were varied as 0.96, 1.31, and 1.70 mass%, respectively. During the running test, the exhaust pressure drop through CR-DPF was measured. And after the test, the ventilation resistance through CR-DPF was also evaluated before and after the baking process, which was applied to eliminate the effect of soot accumulated in CR-DPF. The results revealed that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF. According to microscope examination of the baked DPF, ash was mainly accumulated on the wall surface of CR-DPF, and that seemed to be related to the magnitude of pressure drop caused by ash.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of a Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Methanol Engine using Flash Boiling Fuel Injection

2001-09-24
2001-01-3611
A premixed charge compression ignition methanol engine targeting a drastic decrease in NOx emissions and a brake specific energy consumption equivalent to that of a DI diesel engine has been developed (1). The problems of this combustion system are that the brake thermal efficiency decreases, and CO and THC emissions increase due to a deterioration of high load combustion. The purpose of this study is to improve the high load combustion of a premixed charge compression ignition methanol engine using a flash boiling fuel injection technique. The results of this study have shown that the premixed charge compression ignition methanol combustion system using a flash boiling fuel injection technique increases the brake thermal efficiency, decreases CO and THC emissions, while maintaining low NOx emissions in the high load region.
Technical Paper

Outline of the Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project

1999-08-17
1999-01-2943
The Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project (ACE Project) has been initiated to develop the vehicles which can utilize oil-alternative and clean fuels and achieve twice the energy efficiency of conventional vehicles. To achieve the project objectives, Japanese automobile manufactures are developing six types of hybrid vehicles. Technologies of the developing vehicles include many kinds of hybrid elements, such as series and series/parallel types, alternative fuels (natural gas, DME, methanol) internal combustion engines and a fuel cell, as well as flywheels, ultra-capacitors and Li-ion batteries. This paper introduces the outline of ACE project.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Journal Article

Combustion Behavior of Leaking Hydrogen and Effects of Ceiling Variations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0254
Hydrogen concentration during combustion in a confined space with a ceiling was investigated. The results indicated that steady-state hydrogen concentration was highest at the ceiling surface for all hydrogen flow rates. When hydrogen concentration was 10-20%, weak flame propagation occurred at the ceiling surface, with the most easily burnable spots being dented areas such as seams, pores and creases on the ceiling surface. The unstable and limited nature of flame propagation at the ceiling surface was attributed to the relationship between temperature and hydrogen concentration in a confined space.
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