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Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Impact Responses of the Sid-Iis Small Side Impact Dummy

1998-05-31
986149
A series of side impact tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest prototype of a small side impact dummy, SID-II s β+(plus). The tests were lateral impacts for the thorax, shoulder, and pelvis, as well as lateral drops for the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The test data were compared to the response target corridors that were estimated by scaling the cadaver test data to a smaller occupant. The test results show that the head, should, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the SID-II s β+ either completely or close to meets the response target corridors, and that its biofidelity has been improved from the previous dummy SID II s B-prototype.
Technical Paper

A Study of Motorcycle Leg Protection

1985-01-01
856126
Researchers concerned with motorcycle occupant protection have attempted to develop ways to protect the motorcycle occupant from injury. In the hope of finding a means to protect the motorcycle occupant's lower extremities, the authors have investigated past research, designed a device that incorporates an energy-absorbing component, tested the device in a series of collisions with automobiles, and performed an analysis of the test results to assess the merits of the new device. Results show that although the device may under certain circumstances reduce lower leg injuries, there may be increased potential for upper leg, chest, and head injuries
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior in Hydrogen Storage Tank for FCV on Fast Filling (2nd Report)

2008-04-14
2008-01-0463
If a compressed hydrogen tank for vehicles is filled with hydrogen gas more quickly, the gas temperature in the tank will increase. In this study, we conducted hydrogen gas filling tests using the TYPE 3 and TYPE 4 tanks. During the tests, we measured the temperature of the internal liner surface and investigated its relationship with the gas temperature in the tank. We found that the gas temperature in the upper portion of the TYPE 4 tank rose locally during filling and that the temperature of the internal liner surface near that area also rose, resulting in a temperature higher than the gas temperature at the center of the tank. To keep the maximum temperature in the tank below the designed temperature (85°C) during filling and examine the representative tank internal temperatures, it is important to examine filling methods that can suppress local rises of tank internal temperature.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0131
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Fire Response of Vehicles with Compressed Hydrogen Cylinders

2010-04-12
2010-01-0134
To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) hydrogen storage cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet diffusion flame caused by activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can be extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles.
Technical Paper

Simplifying the Structural Design of the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor for Use in Standardized Testing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1049
The advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI) incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury prediction capability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. The aPLI also incorporates a simplified upper body part (SUBP), connected to the lower limb via a mechanical hip joint, that expands the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also in high-bumper cars.As the aPLI has been developed to be used in standardized testing, further considerations on the impactor’s manufacturability, robustness, durability, usability, and repeatability need to be accounted for.. The aim of this study is to define and verify, by means of numerical analysis, a battery of design modifications that may simplify the manufacturing and use of physical aPLIs, without reducing the impactors’ biofidelity. Eight candidate parameters were investigated in a two-step numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles II

2007-07-23
2007-01-2039
JCAPII gasoline workgroup reported vehicle emission study to comprehend the impact of ETBE blending. In previous study, we focused on the compatibility of ETBE blended gasoline with Japanese current gasoline vehicles in-use. Based on recent discussion with ETBE 8% blended gasoline into the market, more information becomes necessary. In this second report, we studied to comprehend the actual emission impact using realistic model fuels using several base stocks. Fuel properties of T50, T90 and aromatic compound content were selected through discussions. Specifications were changed within the range of the market. Both ETBE 0% and 8% were combined for these fuel matrixes. In total, eight fuels and two reference fuels were tested. Two J-ULEV vehicles (one MPI, and a stoichiometric-SIDI) were procured as representatives. We discussed quantitative and qualitative impact toward emissions. Data regarding CO2 and fuel economy change were also reported.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

2007-07-23
2007-01-1952
Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Occupant Motion and Seat Characteristics in Low-Speed Rear Impacts

1999-03-01
1999-01-0635
Sled tests were conducted with some seats which had different characteristics to understand the relationships between occupant motion and seat characteristics in lowspeed rear impacts. The position of the head restraint and the stiffness distribution of the seatback were selected as parameters expressing seat characteristics. Volunteer’s cervical vertebral motions were photographed with an x-ray cineradiographic system at a speed of 90 frames/sec as well as the visible motions of dummy’s and volunteer’s were recorded. The results indicated the head restraint position and upper seatback stiffness influenced occupant motions. Correlations between visible motions, such as ramping-up, retraction and extension, were also analyzed and some correlations were found.
Technical Paper

Data Processing Method of Finger Blood Pulse for Estimating Human Internal States

1998-02-23
980016
It was found that the finger blood pulse shows various fluctuations in different driving conditions. The nature of the finger blood pulse fluctuations was used for estimating a driver's internal state. Indexes suitable for expressing the fluctuations were moment and density; these indexes were calculated by using a return-map. However these results were measured by an off-line system and were calculated after the experiment. So, an on-line (real-time) system was needed in order to construct a driver's internal state monitoring system. As a first step, an online system for estimating the human internal state was developed. This system is available for estimating the human internal state every 30 seconds.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Commuter Concept Car “C-ta”

2011-05-17
2011-39-7220
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
Technical Paper

J-NCAP: Today and tomorrow

2001-06-04
2001-06-0157
The New Car Assessment Program in Japan (JNCAP) was launched in 1995 in order to improve car safety performance. According to this program, installation conditions of safety devices and the results for braking performance and full- frontal crash tests are published every year. Introduction of JNCAP significantly increases the installation rate of safety devices and contributes much in enhancement of safety as seen in the decrease in the average injury severity of drivers and passengers. Side impact and offset frontal crash tests were introduced in 1999 and 2000, respectively. At present, the overall crash safety rating is carried out based on the results of the full-frontal, offset frontal, and side impact tests.
Technical Paper

Japanese research activity on future side impact test procedures

2001-06-04
2001-06-0155
This paper summarizes a future side impact test procedure based on the Japanese presentation at the recent IHRA Side Impact WG meeting. Under current Japanese regulations, the MDB specifications and test procedures were determined based on a market study more than ten years ago. Thus, they may not reflect current automobile characteristics, the actual accident situation, and crash test results. In this study (1) the vehicle types, velocity of striking and struck vehicles, body injury regions, causes of injuries, etc., are reviewed with reference to the latest Japanese side impact accident data. The occupant percentages for the non-struck-side, rear seat and for female occupants as well as the injury levels were analyzed. (2) To determine the MDB specifications, based on data from passenger car models registered in 1998, the curb mass, geometry and stiffness were examined. (3) For factorial analysis, side impact tests were performed as for real accidents.
Technical Paper

Traffic accidents in rural area and assistance system for traffic safety

2001-06-04
2001-06-0243
An investigation based on human visual search functions was conducted into the causative factors of traffic accidents at clear intersections in rural areas. The results indicated that it is difficult for drivers to detect a vehicle traveling on a collision course because the vehicle remains in the same position in the driver's visual field. Two systems are introduced to assist drivers' visual searches. One system uses an image processing technique, and the other utilizes DGPS and IVC techniques. This paper presents the development of the assistance system.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior in Hydrogen Storage Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle on Fast Filling

2007-04-16
2007-01-0688
The current hydrogen storage systems for fuel-cell vehicles are mainly a compressed hydrogen storage type, but it is known that the temperature inside the tank commonly increases while the tank is being filled with hydrogen. This study examines filling methods that prevent the temperature from exceeding the designed temperature of the tank. In order to propose a filling method that suppresses the temperature rise inside the tank and achieves filling within a short time, fast-filling tests were conducted on test tanks designed for fast filling of fuel cell vehicles. The detailed influences of the differences in type of tank and filling pressure on the rate of the internal temperature increase were investigated. Thermal responses were measured at various parts inside and outside the tank while varying the filling pressure, type of tank, tank capacity, filling time, and filling pattern, using a test tank that allows multi-point measurement of the internal temperature.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0011
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ferrocene on Engine and Vehicle Performance

2006-10-16
2006-01-3448
Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hands-free Phone Conversation on Visual Behavior: Dissociation of Binocular Gaze Point as an Index of Inattention

2005-04-11
2005-01-0439
Effects of hands-free phone conversations on drivers' visual behavior and detection performance were examined using a gaze-tracking device and fixed-based driving simulator. The participants engaged in various conversation tasks (simple/arithmetic/unconstrained) while following a lead vehicle. The results indicated that hands-free-phone conversations, even if the contents are not subjectively demanding, can affect a driver's visual behavior. The increment of binocular gaze dissociation induced by conversing on a phone indicates that a driver's attention is diverted from the external scenery to the conversation. Furthermore, this observed dissociation of binocular gaze may represent a resting position, which is revealed only when binocular fusion is disrupted by occluding one eye.
Technical Paper

Outline of the Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project

1999-08-17
1999-01-2943
The Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project (ACE Project) has been initiated to develop the vehicles which can utilize oil-alternative and clean fuels and achieve twice the energy efficiency of conventional vehicles. To achieve the project objectives, Japanese automobile manufactures are developing six types of hybrid vehicles. Technologies of the developing vehicles include many kinds of hybrid elements, such as series and series/parallel types, alternative fuels (natural gas, DME, methanol) internal combustion engines and a fuel cell, as well as flywheels, ultra-capacitors and Li-ion batteries. This paper introduces the outline of ACE project.
Technical Paper

Study on Haptic Maneuver Guidance by Periodic Knocks on Accelerator Pedal

2015-03-10
2015-01-0039
This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
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