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Technical Paper

Oxidation Degradation and Acid Generation in Diesel Fuel Containing 5% FAME

2007-07-23
2007-01-2027
Compared with diesel fuel, FAME is relatively unstable and readily generates acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid. When FAME-blended diesel fuel is used in existing diesel vehicles, it is important to maintain the concentration of FAME-origin acid in the fuel at an appropriately low level to assure vehicle safety. In the present study, the oxidation of diesel fuel containing 5% FAME is investigated. Several kinds of FAMEs were examined, including reagents such as methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, as well as commercially available products. The level of acid, peroxide, water, and methanol and the pressure of the testing vessel were measured. The result shows that unsaturated FAMEs that have two or more double bonds are unstable. Also, water is generated by oxidation of FAME blended diesel fuel, accelerating corrosion of the terne sheet.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior in Hydrogen Storage Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle on Fast Filling

2007-04-16
2007-01-0688
The current hydrogen storage systems for fuel-cell vehicles are mainly a compressed hydrogen storage type, but it is known that the temperature inside the tank commonly increases while the tank is being filled with hydrogen. This study examines filling methods that prevent the temperature from exceeding the designed temperature of the tank. In order to propose a filling method that suppresses the temperature rise inside the tank and achieves filling within a short time, fast-filling tests were conducted on test tanks designed for fast filling of fuel cell vehicles. The detailed influences of the differences in type of tank and filling pressure on the rate of the internal temperature increase were investigated. Thermal responses were measured at various parts inside and outside the tank while varying the filling pressure, type of tank, tank capacity, filling time, and filling pattern, using a test tank that allows multi-point measurement of the internal temperature.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3397
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

Diffusion and Ignition Behavior on the Assumption of Hydrogen Leakage from a Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0428
hydrogen was leaked from the underfloor at a flow rate exceeding 131 NL/min (11.8 g/min), which is the allowable fuel leakage rate at the time of a collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan, and the resulting distribution of concentration in the engine compartment and the dispersion after stoppage of the leak were investigated. Furthermore, ignition tests were also conducted and the impact on the surroundings (mainly on human bodies) was investigated to verify the safety of the allowable leakage rate. The tests clarified that if hydrogen leaks from the underfloor at a flow rate of 1000 NL/min (89.9 g/min) and is ignited in the engine compartment, people around the vehicle will not be seriously injure. Therefore, it can be said that a flow rate of 131 NL/min (11.8 g/min), the allowable fuel leakage rate at the time of a collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan, assures a sufficient level of safety.
Technical Paper

Safety Evaluation on Fuel Cell Stacks Fire and Toxicity Evaluation of Material Combustion Gas for FCV

2007-04-16
2007-01-0435
Fuel cell vehicles represent a new system, and their safety has not yet been fully proved comparing with present automobile. Thorough safety evaluation is especially needed for the fuel system, which uses hydrogen as fuel, and the electric system, which uses a lot of electricity. The fuel cell stacks that are to be loaded on fuel cell vehicles generate electricity by reacting hydrogen and oxygen through electrolytic polymer membranes which is very thin. The safety of the fuel and electric systems should also be assessed for any abnormality that may be caused by electrolytic polymer membranes for any reasons. The purpose of our tests is to collect basic data to ultimately establish safety standards for fuel cell stacks. Methanol pool flame exposure tests were conducted on stationary use fuel cell stacks of two 200W to evaluate safety in the event of a fire.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

2005-10-24
2005-01-3828
Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Technical Paper

Fire Safety Evaluation of a Vehicle Equipped with Hydrogen Fuel Cylinders: Comparison with Gasoline and CNG Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0129
In this study, we evaluated the fire safety of vehicles that use compressed hydrogen as fuel. We conducted fire tests on vehicles that used compressed hydrogen and on vehicles that used compressed natural gas and gasoline and compared temperatures around the vehicle and cylinder, internal pressure of the cylinder, irradiant heat around the vehicle, sound pressure levels when the pressure relief device (PRD) was activated, and damage to the vehicle and surrounding flammable objects. The results revealed that vehicles equipped with compressed hydrogen gas cylinders are not more dangerous than CNC or gasoline vehicles, even in the event of a vehicle fire.
Technical Paper

Test of Vehicle Ignition Due to Hydrogen Gas Leakage

2006-04-03
2006-01-0126
The distribution of concentrations of hydrogen leaking into the front compartment and the dispersion after the leak was stopped were investigated to obtain basic data for specifying the mounting positions of hydrogen leak detecting sensors and the threshold values of alarms for compressed hydrogen vehicles. Ignition tests were also conducted to investigate the flammability and the environmental impact (i.e. the impact on human bodies). These tests were also conducted with methane to evaluate the protection against hydrogen leaks in vehicles in comparison with natural gas (methane). We found that the concentration of hydrogen in the front compartment reached 23.7 vol% maximum when hydrogen gas was allowed to leak for 600 sec from the center of the bottom of the wheelbase at a rate of 131 NL/min, which is the allowable limit for a fuel leak at the time of collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior in Hydrogen Storage Tank for FCV on Fast Filling (2nd Report)

2008-04-14
2008-01-0463
If a compressed hydrogen tank for vehicles is filled with hydrogen gas more quickly, the gas temperature in the tank will increase. In this study, we conducted hydrogen gas filling tests using the TYPE 3 and TYPE 4 tanks. During the tests, we measured the temperature of the internal liner surface and investigated its relationship with the gas temperature in the tank. We found that the gas temperature in the upper portion of the TYPE 4 tank rose locally during filling and that the temperature of the internal liner surface near that area also rose, resulting in a temperature higher than the gas temperature at the center of the tank. To keep the maximum temperature in the tank below the designed temperature (85°C) during filling and examine the representative tank internal temperatures, it is important to examine filling methods that can suppress local rises of tank internal temperature.
Technical Paper

Calculation of Hydrogen Consumption for Fuel Cell Vehicles by Exhaust Gas Formulation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0465
The hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles (FCV) can be measured by the gravimetric, pressure and flow methods within a ±1% error. These are the methods acknowledged by ISO and SAE [1, 2], but require the test vehicles to be modified in order to supply hydrogen from an external, rather than the onboard tank. Consequently, technical assistance of the vehicle manufacturer is necessary for this modification, while various components in the test vehicle must be readjusted. For these reasons, a measurement method free of vehicle modification is in great demand. The present study therefore developed an “oxygen balance method” which determines the amount of hydrogen that has reacted with oxygen in the fuel cell stack by measuring the oxygen concentration in exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2008-10-06
2008-01-2494
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0131
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Liquefied Gas Assessment of Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (MPT-HFRR) -DME Fuel for Diesel

2004-06-08
2004-01-1865
In this study, a MPT-HFRR (Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) was manufactured based on a diesel fuel lubricity test apparatus. The MPT-HFRR was designed to be used for conventional test methods as well as for liquefied gas fuel tests. Lubricity tests performed on a calibration standard sample under both atmospheric pressure and high pressure produced essentially constant values, so it was determined that this apparatus could be used for assessing the lubricity of fuel. Using this apparatus, the improvement of lubricity due to the addition of a DME (Dimethyl Ether) fuel additive was investigated. It was found that when 50ppm or more of a fatty acid lubricity improver was added, the wear scar diameter converged to 400μm or less, and a value close to the measured result for Diesel fuel was obtained. The lubricity obtained was considered to be generally satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Measurement Methods for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0217
Japan Automobile Research Institute has devised and evaluated the various fuel consumption measurement methods for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). The examination covers the methods based on measurement of electrical current, hydrogen pressure/temperature, weight and flow rate that are expected to be the same accuracy and convenience as conventional measurement methods such as carbon balance method or fuel flow measurement method. As a result of examining the measurement accuracy for each method with a sonic nozzle used as a standard, it is found that both the pressure method and the weight method fulfill the target accuracy of ±1% and that the flow method is able to improve the accuracy by means of calibration with hydrogen. Also, as a result of applying each method to the fuel consumption test of FCVs, the relative error between the pressure method and weight method is within ±1%.
Technical Paper

Analysis of HEV Components Efficiency on Fuel Economy

2000-04-02
2000-01-1542
A simulation has been developed at the Japan Automobile Research Institute to predict the fuel economy of HEVs, which are currently being developed in the advanced clean energy vehicle research and development project of MITI/NEDO (ACE Project). The ACE Project includes six types of HEV. The effect of hybrid components efficiency on fuel economy was evaluated by sensitivity coefficient. The results show that the fuel economy of HEVs can improve that of the base vehicle by two times. The sensitivity coefficient of the battery is largest in the FCEV, while that of the motor is largest in the series or series/parallel HEVs.
Technical Paper

Outline of the Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project

1999-08-17
1999-01-2943
The Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project (ACE Project) has been initiated to develop the vehicles which can utilize oil-alternative and clean fuels and achieve twice the energy efficiency of conventional vehicles. To achieve the project objectives, Japanese automobile manufactures are developing six types of hybrid vehicles. Technologies of the developing vehicles include many kinds of hybrid elements, such as series and series/parallel types, alternative fuels (natural gas, DME, methanol) internal combustion engines and a fuel cell, as well as flywheels, ultra-capacitors and Li-ion batteries. This paper introduces the outline of ACE project.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0725
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 8 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. J2578 is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that it will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to revising SAE J2578 and J1766, the Working Group is also developing a new Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Fire Response of Vehicles with Compressed Hydrogen Cylinders

2010-04-12
2010-01-0134
To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) hydrogen storage cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet diffusion flame caused by activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can be extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation of Vibration Test for Lithium-ion Battery Pack in Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1195
To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we performed tailoring to derive power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and were run on seven different road types at different speeds while data on the acceleration of the battery packs were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square accelerations were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, both experiments and theory suggest that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X- and Y-axes.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0011
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
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