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Technical Paper

Empirical Approach to Risk Factors in Rear End Collisions at Intersections - Effect of Lead Vehicle Behaviour on Premature Decisions of the Following Driver -

2010-04-12
2010-01-1014
Naturalistic driving data has been accumulated by driving data recorders to understand factors that contribute to collisions. Among the rear end conflicts at signalized intersections in the data, conflict data between the following vehicles and suddenly stopping lead vehicles were frequently observed just after their start. To investigate the following drivers' behavior in a realistic driving situation without collision danger, an instrumented vehicle equipped with a liquid-crystal display ahead of the windshield was developed, and an experiment reproducing such conflict on the display was conducted. It was found that a lead vehicle's rapid start (2.8 m/s₂ on average) before quitting its right turn caused the following vehicle's brake reaction time to be longer than a slow start (0.8 m/s₂ on average) did. This result suggests that a following driver's premature decision to start rapidly increases the risk of rear end collisions.
Journal Article

Comparison of fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicles using single-axis chassis dynamometer and dual-axis chassis dynamometer

2011-08-30
2011-01-2058
The demands of application of dual-axis chassis dynamometers (4WD-CHDY) have increased recently due to the improvement of performance of 4WD-CHDY and an increase in the number of 4WD vehicles which are difficult to convert to 2WD. However, there are few evaluations of any differences between fuel economy and exhaust emission levels in the case of 2WD-CHDY with conversion from 4WD to 2WD (2WD-mode) and 4WD-CHDY without conversion to 2WD (4WD-mode). Fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicle equipped with a typical 4WD mechanism were performed to investigate any differences between the case of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode. In these tests, we measured ‘work at wheel’ (wheel-work) using wheel torque meters. A comparison of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode reveals a difference of fuel economy (2WD-mode is 1.5% better than that of 4WD-mode) and wheel-work (2WD-mode is 3.9% less than that of 4WD-mode). However, there are almost no differences of exhaust emission levels.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Controllability Based on Driver Behavior - A Case of Insufficient Brake-Assist Force

2014-04-01
2014-01-0236
Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Response to Pure Lateral Impact

2010-11-03
2010-22-0014
The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
Technical Paper

Assessment Method of Effectiveness of Passenger Seat Belt Reminder

2012-04-16
2012-01-0050
Seat belts for rear passengers are not commonly used, even though they can significantly reduce fatalities. A passenger seat belt reminder (PSBR) is installed in order to encourage seat belt use, but the effectiveness of PSBRs on the rear seat passenger has not yet been proven. We have developed a methodology to assess PSBR effectiveness. There are two pathways to encourage seat belt use. The first is that PSBR directly facilitates the passenger's use. The second is to motivate the driver request passengers to use seat belts. In the experiment, we asked participants sitting in the driver's seat to select one of five ranks of likelihood to encourage the passenger when a PSBR was presented. We also asked participants sitting in the rear passenger seat to select the rank of likelihood to use the belt voluntarily with PSBR and that to use the belt when the driver requested. The degree of likelihood was quantified by averaging the assigned percentage values to the ranks.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Commuter Concept Car “C-ta”

2011-05-17
2011-39-7220
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
Technical Paper

Study on Haptic Maneuver Guidance by Periodic Knocks on Accelerator Pedal

2015-03-10
2015-01-0039
This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ferrocene on Engine and Vehicle Performance

2006-10-16
2006-01-3448
Ferrocene is used as an antiknock additive to replace lead alkyls. To clarify the influence of one metal additive, ferrocene, on engine, following experiments were carried out. The insulation resistance of spark plugs was measured, deposits in the engine were analyzed, and an exhaust emission and fuel economy tests were conducted using gasoline containing ferrocene. The deposit, which contained iron oxides, adhered to the combustion chamber, spark plugs, and exhaust pipe when the engine operated with gasoline containing ferrocene. When vehicles operated with gasoline containing ferrocene, fuel consumption increased and the exhaust temperature rose. In addition, an abnormal electrical discharge pattern was observed in spark plugs operating at high temperatures. Iron-oxide of Fe3O4 is changed into Fe2O3 under high temperatures. Discharge current flows in iron oxides including Fe2O3 because the conductivity of Fe2O3 increases at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

2007-07-23
2007-01-1952
Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles II

2007-07-23
2007-01-2039
JCAPII gasoline workgroup reported vehicle emission study to comprehend the impact of ETBE blending. In previous study, we focused on the compatibility of ETBE blended gasoline with Japanese current gasoline vehicles in-use. Based on recent discussion with ETBE 8% blended gasoline into the market, more information becomes necessary. In this second report, we studied to comprehend the actual emission impact using realistic model fuels using several base stocks. Fuel properties of T50, T90 and aromatic compound content were selected through discussions. Specifications were changed within the range of the market. Both ETBE 0% and 8% were combined for these fuel matrixes. In total, eight fuels and two reference fuels were tested. Two J-ULEV vehicles (one MPI, and a stoichiometric-SIDI) were procured as representatives. We discussed quantitative and qualitative impact toward emissions. Data regarding CO2 and fuel economy change were also reported.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Upper Body and Cervical Spine Kinematics of Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) during Low-Speed, Rear-End Impacts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0387
A total of eight low-speed, rear-end impact tests using two Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a seated posture are reported. These tests were conducted using a HYGE-style mini-sled. Two test conditions were employed: 8 kph without a headrestraint or 16 kph with a headrestraint. Upper-body kinematics were captured for each test using a combination of transducers and high-speed video. A 3-2-2-2-accelerometer package was used to measure the generalized 3D kinematics of both the head and pelvis. An angular rate sensor and two single-axis linear accelerometers were used to measure angular speed, angular acceleration, and linear acceleration of T1 in the sagittal plane. Two high-speed video cameras were used to track targets rigidly attached to the head, T1, and pelvis. The cervical spine kinematics were captured with a high-speed, biplane x-ray system by tracking radiopaque markers implanted into each cervical vertebra.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Impact Responses of the Sid-Iis Small Side Impact Dummy

1998-05-31
986149
A series of side impact tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest prototype of a small side impact dummy, SID-II s β+(plus). The tests were lateral impacts for the thorax, shoulder, and pelvis, as well as lateral drops for the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The test data were compared to the response target corridors that were estimated by scaling the cadaver test data to a smaller occupant. The test results show that the head, should, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the SID-II s β+ either completely or close to meets the response target corridors, and that its biofidelity has been improved from the previous dummy SID II s B-prototype.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hands-free Phone Conversation on Visual Behavior: Dissociation of Binocular Gaze Point as an Index of Inattention

2005-04-11
2005-01-0439
Effects of hands-free phone conversations on drivers' visual behavior and detection performance were examined using a gaze-tracking device and fixed-based driving simulator. The participants engaged in various conversation tasks (simple/arithmetic/unconstrained) while following a lead vehicle. The results indicated that hands-free-phone conversations, even if the contents are not subjectively demanding, can affect a driver's visual behavior. The increment of binocular gaze dissociation induced by conversing on a phone indicates that a driver's attention is diverted from the external scenery to the conversation. Furthermore, this observed dissociation of binocular gaze may represent a resting position, which is revealed only when binocular fusion is disrupted by occluding one eye.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2003R) Model and Evaluation of its Biofidelity

2004-03-08
2004-01-1609
A biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor, called Flex-PLI, was developed by the Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc. (JAMA) and the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Its latest version is called Flex-PLI 2003. The Flex-PLI 2003 responses have been validated at the component level (thigh, leg, and knee independently) but not at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex). Furthermore, there was no FE Flex-PLI model. This research developed a FE Flex-PLI 2003R model (Flex-PLI 2003R means that the thigh and leg mass of Flex-PLI 2003 is adjusted to AM 50). The FE Flex-PLI 2003R model biofidelity has been evaluated at both the component level and the assembly level, where it demonstrated high biofidelity.
Technical Paper

Injury Pattern and Response of Human Thigh under Lateral Loading Simulating Car-Pedestrian Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1603
The main objective of the present study is to determine experimentally the injury patterns and response of the human thigh in lateral impacts simulating more closely the real impact conditions in car-pedestrian accidents. We conducted in-vitro experiments on thirteen thighs of eight completely intact Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs). The thigh was hit by a ram at a speed of 35 km/h at the mid-shaft of the femur in each completely intact PMHS. Since the effect of cumulative injuries should be avoided, each thigh was impacted only once. Three impact energies were used; 450J, 600J and 700J. The PMHS motion was not constrained so as to simulate the walking posture of a pedestrian. We analyzed the peak values of the impact force of the ram and the femur acceleration. Injury was assessed by dissecting the lower extremities.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pedestrian Subsystem Safety Tests Using Impactors and Full-Scale Dummy Tests

2002-03-04
2002-01-1021
Evaluation of car front aggressiveness in car-pedestrian accidents is typically done using sub-system tests. Three such tests have been proposed by EEVC/WG17: 1) the legform to bumper test, 2) the upper legform to bonnet leading edge test, and 3) the headform to bonnet top test. These tests were developed to evaluate performance of the car structure at car to pedestrian impact speed of 11.1 m/s (40 km/h), and each of them has its own impactor, impact conditions and injury criteria. However, it has not been determined yet to what extent the EEVC sub-system tests represent real-world pedestrian accidents. Therefore, there are two objectives of this study. First, to clarify the differences between the injury-related responses of full-scale pedestrian dummy and results of sub-system tests obtained under impact conditions simulating car-to-pedestrian accidents. Second, to propose modifications of current sub-system test methods. In the present study, the Polar (Honda R&D) dummy was used.
Technical Paper

Development of a Biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) and Evaluation of its Biofidelity at the Component Level and at the Assembly Level

2005-04-11
2005-01-1879
JAMA-JARI has developed a biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) by making several modifications to the Flex-PLI 2003 to improve usability, durability and biofidelity. Biofidelity evaluation for the Flex-PLI 2004 was estimated at the component level (thigh, knee, and leg individually) as well as at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex), using an objective impactor biofidelity evaluation system based on a method developed by Rhule et al. to eliminate any subjective prejudice in an impactor biofidelity evaluation. Applying the biofidelity evaluation system to the Flex-PLI 2004, the average impactor biofidelity rank (IBR) score became 1.22 at the component level and 1.26 at the assembly level. These IBR scores mean that the Flex-PLI 2004 has good biofidelity at the component level as well as at the assembly level.
Technical Paper

Data Processing Method of Finger Blood Pulse for Estimating Human Internal States

1998-02-23
980016
It was found that the finger blood pulse shows various fluctuations in different driving conditions. The nature of the finger blood pulse fluctuations was used for estimating a driver's internal state. Indexes suitable for expressing the fluctuations were moment and density; these indexes were calculated by using a return-map. However these results were measured by an off-line system and were calculated after the experiment. So, an on-line (real-time) system was needed in order to construct a driver's internal state monitoring system. As a first step, an online system for estimating the human internal state was developed. This system is available for estimating the human internal state every 30 seconds.
Technical Paper

Injury Pattern and Tolerance of Human Pelvis Under Lateral Loading Simulating Car-pedestrian Impact

2003-03-03
2003-01-0165
Numerous studies of pelvic tolerance to lateral impact aimed at protecting car occupants have been conducted on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) in a sitting posture. However, it remains unclear whether or not the results of these studies are relevant when evaluating the injury risk to walking pedestrians impacted by a car. Therefore, the first objective of the present study is to determine the injury tolerance and to describe the injury mechanisms of the human pelvis in lateral impacts simulating car-pedestrian accidents. The second objective is to obtain data for validation of mathematical models of the pelvis. In-vitro experiments were conducted on twelve PMHSs in simulated standing position. The trochanter of each PMHS was hit by a ram at speed of 32 km/h, and the pelvic motion was constrained by a bolt. This type of pelvic constraint is difficult to simulate in mathematical models.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Foot FE Model Based on the Movement of Bones during Heel Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-0313
Frontal vehicle collisions often result in foot injury of the front seat occupant. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanism of the foot injury. For that purpose, several impact experiments have been conducted using a partial human lower extremity. In addition, recently several impact response analyses using a human FE model have been conducted to understand the mechanism. In the present circumstances, a verified FE model is needed, and the verification of kinematical biofidelity is very important in the first place. In this connection, a foot FE model (based on an existing human FE model) was improved to create a foot FE model, which can be used for study of foot injury mechanism in this research. And the kinematics of foot bones of the model was verified by comparing the bone movements of the FE model with the movement of human foot during heel impact.
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