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Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Impact Responses of the Sid-Iis Small Side Impact Dummy

A series of side impact tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest prototype of a small side impact dummy, SID-II s β+(plus). The tests were lateral impacts for the thorax, shoulder, and pelvis, as well as lateral drops for the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The test data were compared to the response target corridors that were estimated by scaling the cadaver test data to a smaller occupant. The test results show that the head, should, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the SID-II s β+ either completely or close to meets the response target corridors, and that its biofidelity has been improved from the previous dummy SID II s B-prototype.
Technical Paper

A Study of Motorcycle Leg Protection

Researchers concerned with motorcycle occupant protection have attempted to develop ways to protect the motorcycle occupant from injury. In the hope of finding a means to protect the motorcycle occupant's lower extremities, the authors have investigated past research, designed a device that incorporates an energy-absorbing component, tested the device in a series of collisions with automobiles, and performed an analysis of the test results to assess the merits of the new device. Results show that although the device may under certain circumstances reduce lower leg injuries, there may be increased potential for upper leg, chest, and head injuries
Technical Paper

Simplifying the Structural Design of the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor for Use in Standardized Testing

The advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI) incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury prediction capability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. The aPLI also incorporates a simplified upper body part (SUBP), connected to the lower limb via a mechanical hip joint, that expands the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also in high-bumper cars.As the aPLI has been developed to be used in standardized testing, further considerations on the impactor’s manufacturability, robustness, durability, usability, and repeatability need to be accounted for.. The aim of this study is to define and verify, by means of numerical analysis, a battery of design modifications that may simplify the manufacturing and use of physical aPLIs, without reducing the impactors’ biofidelity. Eight candidate parameters were investigated in a two-step numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Foot FE Model Based on the Movement of Bones during Heel Impact

Frontal vehicle collisions often result in foot injury of the front seat occupant. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanism of the foot injury. For that purpose, several impact experiments have been conducted using a partial human lower extremity. In addition, recently several impact response analyses using a human FE model have been conducted to understand the mechanism. In the present circumstances, a verified FE model is needed, and the verification of kinematical biofidelity is very important in the first place. In this connection, a foot FE model (based on an existing human FE model) was improved to create a foot FE model, which can be used for study of foot injury mechanism in this research. And the kinematics of foot bones of the model was verified by comparing the bone movements of the FE model with the movement of human foot during heel impact.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2003R) Model and Evaluation of its Biofidelity

A biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor, called Flex-PLI, was developed by the Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc. (JAMA) and the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Its latest version is called Flex-PLI 2003. The Flex-PLI 2003 responses have been validated at the component level (thigh, leg, and knee independently) but not at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex). Furthermore, there was no FE Flex-PLI model. This research developed a FE Flex-PLI 2003R model (Flex-PLI 2003R means that the thigh and leg mass of Flex-PLI 2003 is adjusted to AM 50). The FE Flex-PLI 2003R model biofidelity has been evaluated at both the component level and the assembly level, where it demonstrated high biofidelity.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Unsteady Flow Around a Formula Car on Earth Simulator

One of the world's largest unsteady turbulence simulations of flow around a formula car was conducted using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) on the Earth Simulator in Japan. The main objective of our study is to investigate the validity of LES for the assessment of vehicle aerodynamics, as an alternative to a conventional wind tunnel measurement or the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation. The aerodynamic forces estimated by LES show good agreement with the wind tunnel data (within several percent!) and various unsteady flow features around the car is visualized, which clearly indicate the effectiveness of large-scale LES in the very near future for the computation of flow around vehicles with complex configurations.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of a Computer Simulation Model of Motorcycle-to-Vehicle Collisions

In order to establish a systematic approach to the study on the injuries sustained by motorcycle riders in accidents and the assessment of protective devices fitted to motorcycles, this research develops a computer simulation model of motorcycle-to-vehicle collision model based on multibody kinematics and dynamics using MADYMO (MAthematical DYnamic MOdel). The effectiveness of the motorcycle-to-vehicle crash model is verified using data of 14 full-scale tests. Comparisons between the simulation peak head acceleration results and the full-scale crash tests data demonstrate a satisfactory agreement between them. The simulation results along with the test data indicate that the leg protectors fitted to the motorcycle can induce harmful consequences to the rider head in some configurations, regardless of their aimed protective effects on the rider’s legs. The findings obtained in this study also provide basis for further improvement of the current model.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pedestrian Subsystem Safety Tests Using Impactors and Full-Scale Dummy Tests

Evaluation of car front aggressiveness in car-pedestrian accidents is typically done using sub-system tests. Three such tests have been proposed by EEVC/WG17: 1) the legform to bumper test, 2) the upper legform to bonnet leading edge test, and 3) the headform to bonnet top test. These tests were developed to evaluate performance of the car structure at car to pedestrian impact speed of 11.1 m/s (40 km/h), and each of them has its own impactor, impact conditions and injury criteria. However, it has not been determined yet to what extent the EEVC sub-system tests represent real-world pedestrian accidents. Therefore, there are two objectives of this study. First, to clarify the differences between the injury-related responses of full-scale pedestrian dummy and results of sub-system tests obtained under impact conditions simulating car-to-pedestrian accidents. Second, to propose modifications of current sub-system test methods. In the present study, the Polar (Honda R&D) dummy was used.
Technical Paper

Development of a Biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) and Evaluation of its Biofidelity at the Component Level and at the Assembly Level

JAMA-JARI has developed a biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) by making several modifications to the Flex-PLI 2003 to improve usability, durability and biofidelity. Biofidelity evaluation for the Flex-PLI 2004 was estimated at the component level (thigh, knee, and leg individually) as well as at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex), using an objective impactor biofidelity evaluation system based on a method developed by Rhule et al. to eliminate any subjective prejudice in an impactor biofidelity evaluation. Applying the biofidelity evaluation system to the Flex-PLI 2004, the average impactor biofidelity rank (IBR) score became 1.22 at the component level and 1.26 at the assembly level. These IBR scores mean that the Flex-PLI 2004 has good biofidelity at the component level as well as at the assembly level.
Technical Paper

Data Processing Method of Finger Blood Pulse for Estimating Human Internal States

It was found that the finger blood pulse shows various fluctuations in different driving conditions. The nature of the finger blood pulse fluctuations was used for estimating a driver's internal state. Indexes suitable for expressing the fluctuations were moment and density; these indexes were calculated by using a return-map. However these results were measured by an off-line system and were calculated after the experiment. So, an on-line (real-time) system was needed in order to construct a driver's internal state monitoring system. As a first step, an online system for estimating the human internal state was developed. This system is available for estimating the human internal state every 30 seconds.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Analysis of Human Cervical Spine Motion During Low Speed Rear-End Impacts

The non-physiological motions of human cervical vertebrae were analyzed in volunteer tests for rear-end impacts and were considered to be an important parameter for neck injuries. The objectives of this study are to improve the Marko de Jager neck model using volunteer test data and to analyze the influence of horizontal and vertical accelerations on cervical vertebral motion. In the beginning of this study, a neck model was positioned based on X-ray cineradiography of a volunteer. Motions of each vertebra were compared with those of volunteer test data for low speed rear-end impacts (4, 6, 8km/h). In these comparisons, the differences of vertebrae motions between the neck model and the volunteer tests were found. To improve the validity of the neck model, the connection properties and the bending properties of the upper and lower vertebrae of the model were modified to increase rigidity.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Response to Pure Lateral Impact

The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
Technical Paper

Development of a Biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

The European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee (EEVC) has proposed a test procedure to assess the protection vehicles provide to the lower extremity of pedestrians during a collision. This procedure utilizes a legform impactor developed by the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL). However, the TRL Pedestrian Legform Impactor (TRL-PLI) is composed of rigid long bones (cannot simulate the bone flexibility of the human) and rather stiff knee joint. The differences lead to a lack of biofidelity of the TRL-PLI, i.e., unnaturally stiff responses are observed. This study develops a biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) that can simulate human bone flexibility and human knee joint stiffness properly. The Flex-PLI can also measure many of the injury parameters, long bone strains at multiple locations, knee ligament elongations, and the compression forces between the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in comparison to the TRL-PLI.
Technical Paper

Japanese research activity on future side impact test procedures

This paper summarizes a future side impact test procedure based on the Japanese presentation at the recent IHRA Side Impact WG meeting. Under current Japanese regulations, the MDB specifications and test procedures were determined based on a market study more than ten years ago. Thus, they may not reflect current automobile characteristics, the actual accident situation, and crash test results. In this study (1) the vehicle types, velocity of striking and struck vehicles, body injury regions, causes of injuries, etc., are reviewed with reference to the latest Japanese side impact accident data. The occupant percentages for the non-struck-side, rear seat and for female occupants as well as the injury levels were analyzed. (2) To determine the MDB specifications, based on data from passenger car models registered in 1998, the curb mass, geometry and stiffness were examined. (3) For factorial analysis, side impact tests were performed as for real accidents.
Technical Paper

A new legform impactor for evaluation of car aggressiveness in car-pedestrian accidents

The goal of the present study was to develop a new legform impactor that accurately represents both the impact force (i.e., force between the leg and impacting mass)and leg kinematics in lateral impacts simulating car-pedestrian accidents. In its development we utilized the knee joint of the pedestrian dummy called Polar-2 (HONDA R&D) in which the cruciate and collateral ligaments are represented by means of springs and cables, the geometry of the femoral condyles is simplified using ellipsoidal surfaces, and the tibial meniscus is represented by an elastomeric pad. The impactor was evaluated by comparing its responses with published experimental results obtained using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). The evaluation was done under two conditions: 1)impact point near the ankle area (bending tests),and 2)impact point 84 mm below the knee joint center (shearing tests). Two impact speeds were used: 5.56 m/s and 11.11 m/s.
Technical Paper

Reconsideration of injury criteria for pedestrian subsystem legform test~Problems of rigid legform impactor

The legform impactor proposed by EEVC/WG17 is composed of a rigid thigh segment and a rigid lower leg segment. Human bone, however, has flexibility, causing some differences between the EEVC rigid legform impactor and the human leg. This research analyzes the influence of the differences (rigid versus flexible) on the injury criteria. It also reanalyzes the upper tibia acceleration with regard to the fracture index. The rigid legform impactor cannot simulate bone bending motion, so the injury criteria should consider the legform rigidity. It means the injury criteria need to include the bone bending effect. From several PMHS test results, the shearing displacement becomes 23 mm and 20 degrees for bending angle including the bone bending effect. However, the bone bending effect will change with the loading conditions. Therefore, to establish a certain injury criteria for a rigid legform impactor is impossible. To solve this problem, a flexible legform impactor seems to be needed.
Journal Article

Development of an Unsteady Aerodynamic Simulator Using Large-Eddy Simulation Based on High-Performance Computing Technique

A numerical method specially designed to predict unsteady aerodynamics of road vehicle was developed based on unstructured Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) technique. The code was intensively optimized for the Earth Simulator in Japan to deal with the excessive computational resources required for LES, and could treat numerical meshes of up to around 120 million elements. Moving boundary methods such as the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) or the sliding method were implemented to handle dynamic motion of a vehicle body during aerodynamic assessment. The method can also model a gusty crosswind condition. The method was applied to three cases in which unsteady aerodynamics are expected to be crucial.
Technical Paper

Effect of Alcohol Fuels on Fuel-Line Materials of Gasoline Vehicles

In 1999, some Japanese fuel suppliers sold highly concentrated alcohol fuels, which are mixtures of gasoline and oxygenates, such as alcohol or ether, in amounts of 50% or more. In August 2001, it was reported that some vehicle models using the highly concentrated alcohol fuels encountered fuel leakage and vehicle fires due to corrosion of the aluminum used for the fuel-system parts. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Government of Japan (MLIT) jointly established the committee on safety for highly concentrated alcohol fuels in September 2001. The committee consisted of automotive technology and metal corrosion experts knowledgeable about preventing such accidents and ensuring user safety. Immersion tests were conducted on metals and other materials used for the fuel-supply system parts to determine the corrosion resistance to each alcohol component contained in the highly concentrated alcohol fuels.
Technical Paper

Injury Pattern and Response of Human Thigh under Lateral Loading Simulating Car-Pedestrian Impact

The main objective of the present study is to determine experimentally the injury patterns and response of the human thigh in lateral impacts simulating more closely the real impact conditions in car-pedestrian accidents. We conducted in-vitro experiments on thirteen thighs of eight completely intact Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs). The thigh was hit by a ram at a speed of 35 km/h at the mid-shaft of the femur in each completely intact PMHS. Since the effect of cumulative injuries should be avoided, each thigh was impacted only once. Three impact energies were used; 450J, 600J and 700J. The PMHS motion was not constrained so as to simulate the walking posture of a pedestrian. We analyzed the peak values of the impact force of the ram and the femur acceleration. Injury was assessed by dissecting the lower extremities.
Technical Paper

Injury Pattern and Tolerance of Human Pelvis Under Lateral Loading Simulating Car-pedestrian Impact

Numerous studies of pelvic tolerance to lateral impact aimed at protecting car occupants have been conducted on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) in a sitting posture. However, it remains unclear whether or not the results of these studies are relevant when evaluating the injury risk to walking pedestrians impacted by a car. Therefore, the first objective of the present study is to determine the injury tolerance and to describe the injury mechanisms of the human pelvis in lateral impacts simulating car-pedestrian accidents. The second objective is to obtain data for validation of mathematical models of the pelvis. In-vitro experiments were conducted on twelve PMHSs in simulated standing position. The trochanter of each PMHS was hit by a ram at speed of 32 km/h, and the pelvic motion was constrained by a bolt. This type of pelvic constraint is difficult to simulate in mathematical models.