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Technical Paper

Effects of Road Structure and Buffer Building on Reduction of Road Traffic Noise

In order to investigate the possibility of noise countermeasures taken on the road and in its surroundings an urban area exposed to high road traffic noise level was taken up as a model, and their effectiveness was estimated by a hybrid simulation method combining a scale model experiment technique and a computer simulation. The case studies of simulation were carried out in the case of improving the road structures, laying the noise barriers, constructing the noise-buffer buildings and so on. As a result, more than 20 dB (A) of road traffic noise reduction were obtained by a modification of the existing surface road to an elevated road.
Technical Paper

Controlling Vehicle Platoon to Alleviate Shockwave Propagation

In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Controllability Based on Driver Behavior - A Case of Insufficient Brake-Assist Force

Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
Technical Paper

One Approach to Definition of MSILs and Their Connections with ASILs

ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
Technical Paper

Development of an Intersection Collision Warning System Using DGPS

In this paper, an intersection collision warning system using DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) will be proposed. The system is developed to prevent collisions of vehicles crossing at intersections, especially at well visibility intersections without traffic lights. Two GPS receivers are installed on two vehicles on the move towards the same intersection from different directions. The position and velocity information of the vehicles are measured by on-board GPS receivers, and then transmitted from one vehicle to another by inter-vehicle communication (IVC). Therefore, the relative position and direction of each vehicle and collision judgment coefficient (CJC) which is defined by using the relative position of vehicles are calculated. After taking the crossing position of directions and the variation of CJC into account, the position of the intersection and the possibility of collision can be predicted in advance. Warning will be given to drivers with a prearranged timing.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Regional Trade and Emission Gas in Asian Automobile Industry

This paper is an attempt to estimate the traffic demand of private vehicles in the Philippines and Thailand toward 2030. Estimation of road traffic volume is one of the most important elements for determining fuel consumption and emission gas levels. The level of passenger car ownership is still low, but there has been a distinct shift toward passenger cars due to the lack of mass transport. In Asian countries, inspection and maintenance and emission standards are the most important policy measures. The projections of car stock are evaluated as the emissions of PM, CO and NOx by applying these policy measures in the case of Thailand.
Journal Article

Development of an Unsteady Aerodynamic Simulator Using Large-Eddy Simulation Based on High-Performance Computing Technique

A numerical method specially designed to predict unsteady aerodynamics of road vehicle was developed based on unstructured Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) technique. The code was intensively optimized for the Earth Simulator in Japan to deal with the excessive computational resources required for LES, and could treat numerical meshes of up to around 120 million elements. Moving boundary methods such as the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) or the sliding method were implemented to handle dynamic motion of a vehicle body during aerodynamic assessment. The method can also model a gusty crosswind condition. The method was applied to three cases in which unsteady aerodynamics are expected to be crucial.