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Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Impact Responses of the Sid-Iis Small Side Impact Dummy

1998-05-31
986149
A series of side impact tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest prototype of a small side impact dummy, SID-II s β+(plus). The tests were lateral impacts for the thorax, shoulder, and pelvis, as well as lateral drops for the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The test data were compared to the response target corridors that were estimated by scaling the cadaver test data to a smaller occupant. The test results show that the head, should, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the SID-II s β+ either completely or close to meets the response target corridors, and that its biofidelity has been improved from the previous dummy SID II s B-prototype.
Technical Paper

Effects of Road Structure and Buffer Building on Reduction of Road Traffic Noise

1989-11-01
891304
In order to investigate the possibility of noise countermeasures taken on the road and in its surroundings an urban area exposed to high road traffic noise level was taken up as a model, and their effectiveness was estimated by a hybrid simulation method combining a scale model experiment technique and a computer simulation. The case studies of simulation were carried out in the case of improving the road structures, laying the noise barriers, constructing the noise-buffer buildings and so on. As a result, more than 20 dB (A) of road traffic noise reduction were obtained by a modification of the existing surface road to an elevated road.
Technical Paper

A Study of Motorcycle Leg Protection

1985-01-01
856126
Researchers concerned with motorcycle occupant protection have attempted to develop ways to protect the motorcycle occupant from injury. In the hope of finding a means to protect the motorcycle occupant's lower extremities, the authors have investigated past research, designed a device that incorporates an energy-absorbing component, tested the device in a series of collisions with automobiles, and performed an analysis of the test results to assess the merits of the new device. Results show that although the device may under certain circumstances reduce lower leg injuries, there may be increased potential for upper leg, chest, and head injuries
Journal Article

Mixing-Controlled, Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Pressure Modulated Multiple-Injection for HSDI Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0609
This paper proposes a new mixing-controlled, low temperature combustion (LTC) approach for high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the excessively high pressure-rise rate (PRR) of premixed, kinetics-controlled LTC and to enable the low nitrogen oxides (NOx) combustion to operate over the wide speed and load range of the engine. To address the soot/noise trade-off at high load LTC operating conditions, the pressure modulated multiple-injection coupled with swirl control was applied. This injection strategy enables the injection of high pressure (HP) main spray into the local high temperature region of the already burning low pressure (LP) pilot spray injected from the neighboring injection hole. By employing this injection strategy, the equivalence ratio (φ) distribution of mixture is drastically varied during main combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Diffusion and Ignition Behavior on the Assumption of Hydrogen Leakage from a Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0428
hydrogen was leaked from the underfloor at a flow rate exceeding 131 NL/min (11.8 g/min), which is the allowable fuel leakage rate at the time of a collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan, and the resulting distribution of concentration in the engine compartment and the dispersion after stoppage of the leak were investigated. Furthermore, ignition tests were also conducted and the impact on the surroundings (mainly on human bodies) was investigated to verify the safety of the allowable leakage rate. The tests clarified that if hydrogen leaks from the underfloor at a flow rate of 1000 NL/min (89.9 g/min) and is ignited in the engine compartment, people around the vehicle will not be seriously injure. Therefore, it can be said that a flow rate of 131 NL/min (11.8 g/min), the allowable fuel leakage rate at the time of a collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan, assures a sufficient level of safety.
Technical Paper

SOF Component of Lubricant Oil on Diesel PM in a High Boosted and Cooled EGR Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0123
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Unsteady Flow Around a Formula Car on Earth Simulator

2007-04-16
2007-01-0106
One of the world's largest unsteady turbulence simulations of flow around a formula car was conducted using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) on the Earth Simulator in Japan. The main objective of our study is to investigate the validity of LES for the assessment of vehicle aerodynamics, as an alternative to a conventional wind tunnel measurement or the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation. The aerodynamic forces estimated by LES show good agreement with the wind tunnel data (within several percent!) and various unsteady flow features around the car is visualized, which clearly indicate the effectiveness of large-scale LES in the very near future for the computation of flow around vehicles with complex configurations.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Model and Pedestrian Dummy

1999-03-01
1999-01-0082
Honda has been studying ways of improving vehicle design to reduce the severity of pedestrian injury. Full-scale test using a pedestrian dummy is an important way to assess the aggressiveness of a vehicle to pedestrians. However, from test results it is concluded that current pedestrian dummies have stiffer characteristics than Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). Also, the dummy kinematics during a collision is different from that of a human body. Because of the limitations of current dummies, it was decided to develop a new pedestrian dummy. At the first stage of the project, a computer simulation model that represented the PMHS tests was developed. Joint characteristics obtained from the simulation model were used in building a new pedestrian dummy which has been named Polar I. The advanced frontal crash test dummy, known as Thor, was selected as the base dummy. Modifications were made for the thorax, spine, knee etc.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Occupant Motion and Seat Characteristics in Low-Speed Rear Impacts

1999-03-01
1999-01-0635
Sled tests were conducted with some seats which had different characteristics to understand the relationships between occupant motion and seat characteristics in lowspeed rear impacts. The position of the head restraint and the stiffness distribution of the seatback were selected as parameters expressing seat characteristics. Volunteer’s cervical vertebral motions were photographed with an x-ray cineradiographic system at a speed of 90 frames/sec as well as the visible motions of dummy’s and volunteer’s were recorded. The results indicated the head restraint position and upper seatback stiffness influenced occupant motions. Correlations between visible motions, such as ramping-up, retraction and extension, were also analyzed and some correlations were found.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of a Computer Simulation Model of Motorcycle-to-Vehicle Collisions

1999-03-01
1999-01-0719
In order to establish a systematic approach to the study on the injuries sustained by motorcycle riders in accidents and the assessment of protective devices fitted to motorcycles, this research develops a computer simulation model of motorcycle-to-vehicle collision model based on multibody kinematics and dynamics using MADYMO (MAthematical DYnamic MOdel). The effectiveness of the motorcycle-to-vehicle crash model is verified using data of 14 full-scale tests. Comparisons between the simulation peak head acceleration results and the full-scale crash tests data demonstrate a satisfactory agreement between them. The simulation results along with the test data indicate that the leg protectors fitted to the motorcycle can induce harmful consequences to the rider head in some configurations, regardless of their aimed protective effects on the rider’s legs. The findings obtained in this study also provide basis for further improvement of the current model.
Technical Paper

Japan Clean Air Program (JCAP): Preliminary Modeling Study of Vehicle Emission Impacts on Air Quality

1999-05-03
1999-01-1482
Comparing with the previous Auto/Oil programs, the total plan and current status of the air quality modeling study in JCAP are presented. The total plan of air quality modeling study has the following characteristics: 1) Vehicle emission inventory program is developed by considering the original features of Japan. 2) Not only the urban air quality but also the road sides pollutants dispersion is evaluated. 3) The chemical reaction model for the secondary particulate formations is developed on the basis of the smog chamber experiments. 4) For the cost-effectiveness analysis of vehicle/fuel technologies, the output of the air quality modeling will be combined with the cost data of new vehicle emission reduction technologies As the first step, preliminary modeling studies are conducted to understand the overall tendency of the air quality change toward 2010 in Tokyo urban area.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

2002-10-21
2002-01-2824
Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Data Processing Method of Finger Blood Pulse for Estimating Human Internal States

1998-02-23
980016
It was found that the finger blood pulse shows various fluctuations in different driving conditions. The nature of the finger blood pulse fluctuations was used for estimating a driver's internal state. Indexes suitable for expressing the fluctuations were moment and density; these indexes were calculated by using a return-map. However these results were measured by an off-line system and were calculated after the experiment. So, an on-line (real-time) system was needed in order to construct a driver's internal state monitoring system. As a first step, an online system for estimating the human internal state was developed. This system is available for estimating the human internal state every 30 seconds.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Analysis of Human Cervical Spine Motion During Low Speed Rear-End Impacts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0154
The non-physiological motions of human cervical vertebrae were analyzed in volunteer tests for rear-end impacts and were considered to be an important parameter for neck injuries. The objectives of this study are to improve the Marko de Jager neck model using volunteer test data and to analyze the influence of horizontal and vertical accelerations on cervical vertebral motion. In the beginning of this study, a neck model was positioned based on X-ray cineradiography of a volunteer. Motions of each vertebra were compared with those of volunteer test data for low speed rear-end impacts (4, 6, 8km/h). In these comparisons, the differences of vertebrae motions between the neck model and the volunteer tests were found. To improve the validity of the neck model, the connection properties and the bending properties of the upper and lower vertebrae of the model were modified to increase rigidity.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Commuter Concept Car “C-ta”

2011-05-17
2011-39-7220
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
Technical Paper

J-NCAP: Today and tomorrow

2001-06-04
2001-06-0157
The New Car Assessment Program in Japan (JNCAP) was launched in 1995 in order to improve car safety performance. According to this program, installation conditions of safety devices and the results for braking performance and full- frontal crash tests are published every year. Introduction of JNCAP significantly increases the installation rate of safety devices and contributes much in enhancement of safety as seen in the decrease in the average injury severity of drivers and passengers. Side impact and offset frontal crash tests were introduced in 1999 and 2000, respectively. At present, the overall crash safety rating is carried out based on the results of the full-frontal, offset frontal, and side impact tests.
Technical Paper

Japanese research activity on future side impact test procedures

2001-06-04
2001-06-0155
This paper summarizes a future side impact test procedure based on the Japanese presentation at the recent IHRA Side Impact WG meeting. Under current Japanese regulations, the MDB specifications and test procedures were determined based on a market study more than ten years ago. Thus, they may not reflect current automobile characteristics, the actual accident situation, and crash test results. In this study (1) the vehicle types, velocity of striking and struck vehicles, body injury regions, causes of injuries, etc., are reviewed with reference to the latest Japanese side impact accident data. The occupant percentages for the non-struck-side, rear seat and for female occupants as well as the injury levels were analyzed. (2) To determine the MDB specifications, based on data from passenger car models registered in 1998, the curb mass, geometry and stiffness were examined. (3) For factorial analysis, side impact tests were performed as for real accidents.
Technical Paper

Traffic accidents in rural area and assistance system for traffic safety

2001-06-04
2001-06-0243
An investigation based on human visual search functions was conducted into the causative factors of traffic accidents at clear intersections in rural areas. The results indicated that it is difficult for drivers to detect a vehicle traveling on a collision course because the vehicle remains in the same position in the driver's visual field. Two systems are introduced to assist drivers' visual searches. One system uses an image processing technique, and the other utilizes DGPS and IVC techniques. This paper presents the development of the assistance system.
Technical Paper

Research on bus passenger safety in frontal impacts

2001-06-04
2001-06-0210
Guidelines with regard to the body strength of buses have been drawn up in Japan. We now pass to the second step in research to assure the greater safety of bus crews and passengers by launching a study on further reduction of collision injuries to bus occupants. As a way to reduce such passenger injuries, our focus is the optimization of energy absorption, the arrangement of equipment on the passenger seat back, the seat frame construction, mounting and so on. The study was conducted using an experimental method together with FEM computer simulation. The findings from a sled impact test simulating a seat in a bus in a frontal collision are stated as follows. 1.Further consideration should be given to the present conventional ELR two-point seat belt. 2.One way to reduce passenger injury is to optimize the space between seats.
Technical Paper

Optimal Specifications for the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor

2017-11-13
2017-22-0014
This study addresses the virtual optimization of the technical specifications for a recently developed Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI). The aPLI incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury predictability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. It also incorporates an attached Simplified Upper Body Part (SUBP) that enables the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also with high-bumper cars. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize both the aPLI’s lower limb and SUBP specifications, while imposing a total mass upper limit of 25 kg that complies with international standards for maximum weight lifting allowed for a single operator in the laboratory setting. All parameters were virtually optimized considering variable interaction, which proved critical to avoid misleading specifications.
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