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Technical Paper

Monitoring Pre-Combustion Event Markers by Heating Electrical Wires

2009-07-12
2009-01-2543
Simultaneous measurements were made for particle releases and off-gassing products produced by heating electrical wires. The wire samples in these experiments were heated to selected temperatures in a heating chamber and responses to vapor releases were recorded by the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) and an Industrial Scientific ITX gas-monitor; particles released were detected by a TSI P-Trak particle counter. The temperature range considered for the experiment is room temperature (24−26°C) to 500 °C. The results were analyzed by overlapping responses from the ENose, ITX gas sensors and P-Trak, to understand the events (particle release/off-gassing) and sequence of events as a function of temperature and to determine qualitatively whether ENose may be used to detect pre-combustion event markers.
Technical Paper

Development of the Surface Thermal Environment for the Mars Scout Phoenix Mission

2007-07-09
2007-01-3239
Phoenix is NASA's first Mars Scouts Mission that will place a soft-lander on the Martian surface at a high northern latitude. Much of the Mars surface environmental flight data from landed missions pertains to the near-equatorial regions. However, orbital observations have yielded very useful data about the surface environment. These data along with a simple, but highly effective one-dimensional atmospheric model was used to develop the Phoenix surface thermal environment. As candidate landing sites were identified, parametric studies including statistical variations were conducted to prescribe minimum nighttime and maximum daytime temperature design Sols (a Martian day). Atmospheric effects such as clouds and ice were considered. Finally, recent candidate landing site imaging conducted by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed that the prime site contained a much higher rock density than first thought.
Technical Paper

Viral Populations within the International Space Station's Internal Active Thermal Control System Ground Support and Potential Flight Hardware

2007-07-09
2007-01-3108
The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) contains an aqueous, alkaline fluid (pH 9.5±0.5) that aids in maintaining a habitable environment for the crew. Because microbes have significant potential to cause disease, adverse effects on astronaut health, and microbe-induced corrosion, the presence of both bacteria and viruses within IATCS fluids is of concern. This study sought to detect and identify viral populations in IATCS samples obtained from the Kennedy Space Center as a first step towards characterizing and understanding potential risks associated with them. Samples were concentrated and viral nucleic acids (NA) extracted providing solutions containing 8.87-22.67 μg NA per mL of heat transfer fluid. After further amplification viral DNA and cDNA were then pooled, fluorescently labeled, and hybridized onto a Combimatrix panvira 12K microarray containing probes for ∼1,000 known human viruses.
Technical Paper

Chemical Sensor Testing for Space Life Support Chemical Processing: Part I. Moisture Sensors

1994-06-01
941263
In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA), a laboratory has been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to evaluate the characteristics of chemical sensors which are candidates for use in a controlled chemical processing life support system. Such a facility is required for characterizing those sensors under development as well as those commercially available but whose functional properties are typically based upon operating in industrial environments that will not be completely synonomous with space operations. Space environments, such as an orbiting station or lunar base, will generally have different sensor requirements than terrestrial applications with respect to size, multifunctionality, sensitivity, reliability, temperature, ruggedness, mass, consumables, life, and power requirements. Both commercially available and developmental moisture sensors have been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Mars Exploration Rover: Thermal Design is a System Engineering Activity

2004-07-19
2004-01-2411
The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), were launched in June and July of 2003, respectively, and successfully landed on Mars in early and late January of 2004, respectively. The flight system architecture implemented many successful features of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) system: A cruise stage that transported an entry vehicle that housed the Lander, which in turn, used airbags to cushion the Rover during the landing event. The initial thermal design approach focused on adopting the MPF design wherever possible, and then concentrating on the totally new Rover thermal design. Despite a fundamentally sound approach, there were several salient lessons learned. Some were due to differences from MPF, while others were caused by other means. These lessons sent a clear message: thermal design continues to be a system engineering activity. In each major flight system assembly, there were excellent examples of this recurring theme.
Technical Paper

Sorbent Bed Acquisition and Compression of Carbon Dioxide from the Mars Atmosphere

2000-07-10
2000-01-2237
Human exploration of Mars as well as unmanned sample return missions from Mars can benefit greatly from the use of propellants produced from the resources available from the atmosphere of Mars. The first major step of any in-situ propellant production (ISPP) system is to acquire carbon dioxide (CO2) from the Mars atmosphere and compress it for further chemical processing. One system that performs this step is called a Mars Atmosphere Acquisition and Compression (MAAC) unit. A simple prototype MAAC was developed by JPL as part of the Mars ISPP Precursor (MIP) experiment package for inclusion on the Mars 2001 Surveyor Lander. The MAAC consists of a valved enclosure packed with a sorbent material which selectively adsorbs CO2 from the Mars atmosphere (valves open), desorbs and compresses the acquired CO2 by heating (valves closed) and then delivers the pressurized CO2 to an oxygen generating system where the CO2 is electrolyzed to produce oxygen.
Technical Paper

Thermal Engineering of Mars Entry Carbon/Carbon Non-Ablative Aeroshell - Part 2

2000-07-10
2000-01-2404
Candidate Aeroshell Test models composed of a quasi-isotropic Carbon/Carbon(C/C) front face sheet (F/S), eggcrate core, C/C back F/S, Carbon Aerogel insulation, C/C radiation shield and the C/C close-out were constructed based on the analytical temperature predictions presented in Part One of this work[1]. The analytical results obtained for a simulated Mars entry of a 2.9 meter diameter cone shaped Carbon-Carbon Aeroshell demonstrated the feasibility of the design. These results showed that the maximum temperature the front F/S reached during the decent was 1752 °C with the resulting rear temperature reaching 326 °C in the thermal model. Part Two of this work documents the thermal modeling and correlation for the Mars Aeroshell test sample and fixture. A finite difference, SINDA/G, thermal math model of the test fixture and sample was generated and correlated to data from an arc jet test conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center's interactive heating facility.
Journal Article

Development of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Instrument Thermal Control System

2008-06-29
2008-01-2065
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will carry a single science instrument scheduled for launch on an Orbital Sciences Corporation LeoStar-2 architecture spacecraft bus in December 2008. The science objective of the OCO instrument is to collect spaced-based measurements of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to identify CO2 sources and sinks and quantify their seasonal variability. The instrument will permit the collection of spatially resolved, high resolution spectroscopic observations of CO2 and O2 absorption in reflected sunlight over both continents and oceans. These measurements will improve our ability to forecast CO2 induced climate change. The instrument consists of three bore-sighted, high resolution grating spectrometers sharing a common telescope with similar optics and electronics.
Journal Article

Off-Gassing and Particle Release by Heated Polymeric Materials

2008-06-29
2008-01-2090
Polymers are one of the major constituents in electrical components. A study investigating pre-combustion off-gassing and particle release by polymeric materials over a range of temperatures can provide an understanding of thermal degradation prior to failure which may result in a fire hazard. In this work, we report simultaneous measurements of pre-combustion vapor and particle release by heated polymeric materials. The polymer materials considered for the current study are silicone and Kapton. The polymer samples were heated over the range 20 to 400°C. Response to vapor releases were recorded using the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) and Industrial Scientific's ITX gas monitor configured to detect hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Particle release was monitored using a TSI P-TRAK particle counter.
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