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Technical Paper

Thermal Strategy for the Phoenix Robotic Arm Deployment

2009-07-12
2009-01-2438
The Mars Scout Phoenix Lander successfully landed in the Martian northern latitude on May 25, 2008. The Robotic Arm, which was designed to dig and to transfer soil samples to other Lander instruments, contained a number of actuators that had specific operational windows on the Martian surface due to the bearing lubricant. The deployment of the Robotic Arm was planned for Sol 2 (Mars days are referred to “Sols”). A few weeks before Mars landing, the Robotic Arm operations team learned that a strict flight rule had been imposed. It specified that the deployment shall be accomplished when the actuators were at or above −25°C since the deployment activity was qualified with the actuators at −40°C. Furthermore, the deployment plan identified a window of opportunity between 13:00 Local Solar Time (LST, equivalent to dividing the Sol into 24 equal Martian hours) and 15:30 LST.
Technical Paper

Monitoring Pre-Combustion Event Markers by Heating Electrical Wires

2009-07-12
2009-01-2543
Simultaneous measurements were made for particle releases and off-gassing products produced by heating electrical wires. The wire samples in these experiments were heated to selected temperatures in a heating chamber and responses to vapor releases were recorded by the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) and an Industrial Scientific ITX gas-monitor; particles released were detected by a TSI P-Trak particle counter. The temperature range considered for the experiment is room temperature (24−26°C) to 500 °C. The results were analyzed by overlapping responses from the ENose, ITX gas sensors and P-Trak, to understand the events (particle release/off-gassing) and sequence of events as a function of temperature and to determine qualitatively whether ENose may be used to detect pre-combustion event markers.
Journal Article

Thermal Design Trade Study for the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam Body Unit

2009-07-12
2009-01-2462
The Mars Science Laboratory will be the next Martian mobility system that is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. The ChemCam Instrument is a part of the MSL science payload suite. It is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 9 meters away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. The portion of ChemCam that is located inside the Rover, the ChemCam Body Unit contains the imaging charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors. Late in the design cycle, the ChemCam team explored alternate thermal design architectures to provide CCD operational overlap with the Rover's remote sensing instruments. This operational synergy is necessary to enable planning for subsequent laser firings and geological context.
Journal Article

Mars Science Laboratory Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop for Thermal Control - Design, Implementation, and Testing

2009-07-12
2009-01-2437
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to land a large rover on Mars is being prepared for Launch in 2011. A Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) on the rover provides an electrical power of 110 W for use in the rover and the science payload. Unlike the solar arrays, MMRTG provides a constant electrical power during both day and night for all seasons (year around) and latitudes. The MMRTG dissipates about 2000 W of waste heat to produce the desired electrical power. One of the challenges for MSL Rover is the thermal management of the large amount of MMRTG waste heat. During operations on the surface of Mars this heat can be harnessed to maintain the rover and the science payload within their allowable limits during nights and winters without the use of electrical survival heaters. A mechanically pumped fluid loop heat rejection and recovery system (HRS) is used to pick up some of this waste heat and supply it to the rover and payload.
Journal Article

Design Description and Initial Characterization Testing of an Active Heat Rejection Radiator with Digital Turn-Down Capability

2009-07-12
2009-01-2419
NASA's proposed lunar lander, Altair, will be exposed to vastly different external temperatures following launch till its final destination on the moon. In addition, the heat rejection is lowest at the lowest environmental temperatures (0.5 kW @ 4K) and highest at the highest environmental temperature (4.5 kW @ 215K). This places a severe demand on the radiator design to handle these extreme turn-down requirements. A radiator with digital turn-down capability is currently under study at JPL as a robust means to meet the heat rejection demands and provide freeze protection while minimizing mass and power consumption. Turndown is achieved by independent control of flow branches with isolating latch valves and a gear pump to evacuate the isolated branches. A bench-top test was conducted to characterize the digital radiator concept. Testing focused on the demonstration of proper valve sequencing to achieve turn-down and recharge of flow legs.
Journal Article

On-Orbit Performance of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Instrument

2009-07-12
2009-01-2390
Launched on India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft on October 22, 2008, JPL's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument has successfully completed over six months of operation in space. M3 is one in a suite of eleven instruments, six of which are foreign payloads, flying onboard the Indian spacecraft. Chandrayaan-1, managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, is India's first deep space mission. Chandrayaan-1 was launched on the upgraded version of India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR, Sriharikota, India. The primary science objective of the M3 instrument is the characterization and mapping of the lunar surface composition in the context of its geologic evolution. Its primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Subsystem Assessment

1983-02-01
830349
Various candidates for nonpetroleum electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) subsystems have been evaluated as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The subsystems include battery and power-peaking energy storage, heat engine and fuel cell energy conversion devices, motor/controller subsystems, transmissions, and vehicle subsystem (structure and body) technologies. The primary objective of this effort, was to project the mature capabilities of the various components in the 1990’s for application in the systems evaluations in the next phase of this activity. This paper presents the basic characteristics of the subsystems and compares their capabilities with projected AV subsystem requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of the Third Generation JPL Electronic Nose for International Space Station Technology Demonstration

2007-07-09
2007-01-3149
The capabilities of the JPL Electronic Nose have been expanded to include characteristics required for a Technology Demonstration schedule on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008-2009 [1,2]. Concurrently, to accommodate specific needs on ISS, the processes, tools and analyses which influence all aspects of development of the device have also been expanded. The Third Generation ENose developed for this program uses two types of sensor substrates, newly developed inorganic and organic sensor materials, redesigned electronics, onboard near real-time data analysis and power and data interfaces specifically for ISS. This paper will discuss the Third Generation ENose with a focus on detection of mercury in the parts-per-billion range.
Technical Paper

Mars Science Laboratory Thermal Control Architecture

2005-07-11
2005-01-2828
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL1) mission to land a large rover on Mars is being planned for Launch in 2009. As currently conceived, the rover would use a Multi-mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to generate about 110 W of electrical power for use in the rover and the science payload. Usage of an MMRTG allows for a large amount of nearly constant electrical power to be generated day and night for all seasons (year around) and latitudes. This offers a large advantage over solar arrays. The MMRTG by its nature dissipates about 2000 W of waste heat. The basic architecture of the thermal system utilizes this waste heat on the surface of Mars to maintain the rover's temperatures within their limits under all conditions. In addition, during cruise, this waste heat needs to be dissipated safely to protect sensitive components in the spacecraft and the rover.
Technical Paper

Mars Exploration Rover Surface Mission Flight Thermal Performance

2005-07-11
2005-01-2827
NASA launched two rovers in June and July of 2003 as a part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. MER-A (Spirit) landed on Mars in Gusev Crater at 15 degrees South latitude and 175 degrees East longitude on January 4, 2004 (Squyres, et al., Dec. 2004). MER-B (Opportunity) landed on Mars in Terra Meridiani at 2 degrees South latitude and 354 degrees East longitude on January 25, 2004 (Squyres, et al., Aug. 2004). Both rovers have well exceeded their design lifetime (90 Sols) by more than a factor of 5. Spirit and Opportunity are still healthy and continue to execute their roving science missions at the time of this writing. This paper discusses rover flight thermal performance during the surface missions of both vehicles, covering roughly the time from the MER-A landing in late Southern Summer (aereocentric longitude, Ls = 328, Sol 1A) through the Southern Winter solstice (Ls = 90, Sol 255A) to nearly Southern Vernal equinox (Ls = 160, Sol 398A).
Technical Paper

Extended Temperature Range Studies for Dry Heat Microbial Reduction

2005-07-11
2005-01-3096
Dry heat microbial reduction is an approved method to reduce the microbial bioburden on space-flight hardware prior to launch to meet flight project planetary protection requirements. Microbial bioburden reduction also occurs if a spacecraft enters a planetary atmosphere (e.g., Mars) and is heated by frictional forces. However, without further studies, administrative credit for this reduction cannot be applied. The killing of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores has been examined and lethality data has been collected by placing spores in a vacuum oven or thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEV) in a constant temperature bath. Using this lethality data, a preliminary mathematical model is being developed that can be used to predict spore killing at different temperatures. This paper will present the lethality data that has been collected at this time and the planned future studies.
Technical Paper

Implications of the VBNC State of B. cepacia and S. maltophilia on Bioreduction and Microbial Monitoring of ISS Potable Waters

2005-07-11
2005-01-2933
Certain Eubacteria enter a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state upon encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. VBNC cells do not divide on conventional media yet remain viable and in some cases retain virulence. Here, we describe the VBNC state of two opportunistic pathogens previously isolated from ISS potable waters, Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Artificially inoculated microcosms were exposed to the biocidal agents copper (CuSO4) and iodine (I2) in an attempt to induce nonculturablility. Viability was assessed via fluorescent microscopy (direct viable count assay coupled with BacLight™ staining) and metabolic activity was monitored by quantifying both intracellular ATP and transcribed rRNA (reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR). Culturablility was lost in both B. cepacia and S. maltophilia within two days of exposure to copper or high concentrations of iodine (6 or 8 ppm).
Technical Paper

Q-PCR Based Bioburden Assessment of Drinking Water Throughout Treatment and Delivery to the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2932
Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens in samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were designed and used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. In addition, primer-probe sets specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and genes of these two opportunistic pathogens quantified in the pre- and post-flight drinking water as well as coolant waters. This Q-PCR approach supports findings of previous culture-based studies however; the culture based studies may have underestimated the microbial burden of ISS drinking water.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Analyte Set of the JPL Electronic Nose to Include Inorganic Species

2005-07-11
2005-01-2880
An array-based sensing system based on 32 polymer/carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL. Until the present phase of development, the analyte set has focused on organic compounds (common solvents) and a few selected inorganic compounds, notably ammonia and hydrazine. The present phase of JPL ENose development has added two inorganics to the analyte set: mercury and sulfur dioxide. Through models of sensor-analyte response developed under this program coupled with a literature survey, approaches to including these analytes in the ENose target set have been determined.
Technical Paper

On-Orbit Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Heat Rejection System

2008-06-29
2008-01-2000
Launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004, JPL's Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) has been operating successfully for over three years in space. TES is an infrared high resolution, imaging fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage of 3.3 to 15.4 μm to measure and profile essentially all infrared-active molecules present in the Earth's lower atmosphere. It measures the three-dimensional distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere on a global scale. The Aura spacecraft was successfully placed in a sun-synchronous near-circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period. The observatory is designed for a nominal 5 year mission lifetime. The instrument thermal design features include four temperature zones needed for efficient cryogenic staging to provide cooling at 65 K, 180 K, 230 K and 300 K.
Technical Paper

Thermal Design of the Mars Science Laboratory Powered Descent Vehicle

2008-06-29
2008-01-2001
NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission will use a Powered Descent Vehicle to accurately and safely land a roving, robotic laboratory on the surface of Mars. The precision landing systems employed on this vehicle are exposed to a wide range of mission environments from deep space cruise to atmospheric descent and require a robust and adaptable thermal design. This paper discusses the overall thermal design philosophy of the MSL Powered Descent Vehicle and presents analysis of the active and passive elements comprising the Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing thermal control systems.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2037
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument is scheduled for launch in 2008 onboard the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The mission is managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India and is India's first flight to the Moon. M3 is being developed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the Discovery Program Office managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. M3 is a state-of-the-art instrument designed to fulfill science and exploratory objectives. Its primary science objective is to characterize and map the lunar surface composition to better understand its geologic evolution. M3's primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions. M3 is a cryogenic near infrared imaging spectrometer with spectral coverage of 0.4 to 3.0 μm at 10 nm resolution with high signal to noise ratio, spatial and spectral uniformity.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2036
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) instrument is scheduled for launch onboard an Orbital Sciences Corporation LEOStar-2 architecture spacecraft in December 2008. The instrument will collect data to identify CO2 sources and sinks and quantify their seasonal variability. OCO observations will permit the collection of spatially resolved, high resolution spectroscopic observations of CO2 and O2 absorption in reflected sunlight over both continents and oceans. OCO has three bore-sighted, high resolution, grating spectrometers which share a common telescope with similar optics and electronics. A 0.765 μm channel will be used for O2 observations, while the weak and strong CO2 bands will be observed with 1.61 μm and 2.06 μm channels, respectively. The OCO spacecraft circular polar orbit will be sun-synchronous with an inclination of 98.2 degrees, mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period.
Technical Paper

Development of the Surface Thermal Environment for the Mars Scout Phoenix Mission

2007-07-09
2007-01-3239
Phoenix is NASA's first Mars Scouts Mission that will place a soft-lander on the Martian surface at a high northern latitude. Much of the Mars surface environmental flight data from landed missions pertains to the near-equatorial regions. However, orbital observations have yielded very useful data about the surface environment. These data along with a simple, but highly effective one-dimensional atmospheric model was used to develop the Phoenix surface thermal environment. As candidate landing sites were identified, parametric studies including statistical variations were conducted to prescribe minimum nighttime and maximum daytime temperature design Sols (a Martian day). Atmospheric effects such as clouds and ice were considered. Finally, recent candidate landing site imaging conducted by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed that the prime site contained a much higher rock density than first thought.
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