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Technical Paper

Self-Deployable Foam Antenna Structures for Earth Observation Radiometer Applications

2006-07-17
2006-01-2064
The overall goal of this program was the development of a 10 m. diameter, self-deployable antenna based on an open-celled rigid polyurethane foam system. Advantages of such a system relative to current inflatable or self-deploying systems include high volumetric efficiency of packing, high restoring force, low (or no) outgassing, low thermal conductivity, high dynamic damping, mechanical isotropy, infinite shelf life, and easy fabrication with methods amenable to construction of large structures (i.e., spraying). As part of a NASA Phase II SBIR, Adherent Technologies and its research partners, Temeku Technologies, and NASA JPL/Caltech, conducted activities in foam formulation, interdisciplinary analysis, and RF testing to assess the viability of using open cell polyurethane foams for self-deploying antenna applications.
Technical Paper

Effects of High Temperature and Pressure on Fuel Lubricated Wear

2001-09-24
2001-01-3523
While standardized laboratory-scale wear tests are available to predict the lubricity of liquid fuels under ambient conditions, the reality is that many injection systems operate at elevated temperatures where fuel vaporization is too excessive to perform the measure satisfactorily. The present paper describes a High Pressure High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HPHFRR) purposely designed to evaluate fuel lubricity in a pressurized environment at temperatures of up to 300°C. The remaining test parameters are identical to those of the widely standardized High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results obtained using the HPHFRR indicate that wear rate with poor lubricity fuels is strongly sensitive to both temperature and oxygen partial pressure and may be orders of magnitude higher than at ambient conditions. Surprisingly however, wear rate was found to decrease dramatically at temperatures above 100°C, possibly due to evaporation of dissolved moisture.
Technical Paper

Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

2006-07-17
2006-01-2238
In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series of tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCVG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Thermal Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance of Space Suit Elements with Aerogel Insulation for Moon and Mars Exploration

2006-07-17
2006-01-2235
Flexible fiber-reinforced aerogel composites were studied for use as insulation materials of a future space suit for Moon and Mars exploration. High flexibility and good thermal insulation properties of fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composites at both high and low vacuum conditions make it a promising insulation candidate for the space suit application. This paper first presents the results of a durability (mechanical cycling) study of these aerogels composites in the context of retaining their thermal performance. The study shows that some of these Aerogels materials retained most of their insulation performance after up to 250,000 cycles of mechanical flex cycling. This paper also examines the problem of integrating these flexible aerogel composites into the current space suit elements.
Technical Paper

Nanoscale Materials for Human Spaceflight Applications: Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal Using Single-wall Carbon Nanotubes

2006-07-17
2006-01-2195
The challenges of missions to the Moon and Mars presents NASA with the need for more advanced life support systems, including better technologies for CO2 removal in spacecraft atmospheres and extravehicular mobility units (EMU). Amine-coated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been proposed as a potential solution because of their high surface area and thermal conductivity. Initial research demonstrated the need for functionalization of SWCNT to obtain optimal adherence of the amine to the SWCNT support phase [1]. Recent efforts focus on the development of new methods to chemically bond amines to SWCNT. Synthesis and characterization methods for these materials are discussed and some preliminary materials characterization data are presented. The CO2 adsorption capacity for several versions of SWCNT supported amine-based CO2 scrubber materials is also determined.
Technical Paper

Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

2006-07-17
2006-01-2236
This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes).
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel System Component Durability

2006-10-16
2006-01-3279
An ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with three different biodiesel samples at 5 and 20 volume percent. The biodiesel fuels were derived from rapeseed and soybean oils, and in addition, a highly oxidized biodiesel was prepared from the soy biodiesel by oxidation under controlled conditions. A set of five elastomers commonly used in automotive fuel systems were examined before and after immersion in the six test blends and base fuel at 60°C for 1000 hours. The elastomers were evaluated for hardness, tensile strength, volume change and compression. Injector wear tests were also conducted on the base petrodiesel fuel and the biodiesel blends using a 500-hour test method developed for this study. Bosch VE (in-line) rotary pumps were evaluated for wear after testing for 500 hours on the base fuel, B5 and B20 test fuels. Additionally, a test procedure was developed to accelerate wear on common rail pumps over 500 hours.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2036
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) instrument is scheduled for launch onboard an Orbital Sciences Corporation LEOStar-2 architecture spacecraft in December 2008. The instrument will collect data to identify CO2 sources and sinks and quantify their seasonal variability. OCO observations will permit the collection of spatially resolved, high resolution spectroscopic observations of CO2 and O2 absorption in reflected sunlight over both continents and oceans. OCO has three bore-sighted, high resolution, grating spectrometers which share a common telescope with similar optics and electronics. A 0.765 μm channel will be used for O2 observations, while the weak and strong CO2 bands will be observed with 1.61 μm and 2.06 μm channels, respectively. The OCO spacecraft circular polar orbit will be sun-synchronous with an inclination of 98.2 degrees, mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance Evaluation of a Small Loop Heat Pipe for Space Applications

2003-07-07
2003-01-2688
A Small Loop Heat Pipe (SLHP) featuring a wick of only 1.27 cm (0.5 inches) in diameter has been designed for use in spacecraft thermal control. It has several features to accommodate a wide range of environmental conditions in both operating and non-operating states. These include flexible transport lines to facilitate hardware integration, a radiator capable of sustaining over 100 freeze-thaw cycles using ammonia as a working fluid and a structural integrity to sustain acceleration loads up to 30 g. The small LHP has a maximum heat transport capacity of 120 Watts with thermal conductance ranging from 17 to 21 W/°C. The design incorporates heaters on the compensation chamber to modulate the heat transport from full-on to full-stop conditions. A set of start up heaters are attached to the evaporator body using a specially designed fin to assist the LHP in starting up when it is connected to a large thermal mass.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties and Durability Study of Aerogel-Base Thermal Insulation for Advanced Space Suit

2003-07-07
2003-01-2446
Fiber-reinforced Aerogel composite insulations provide superior thermal insulation protection in both the low-earth orbit (LEO) and near-earth neighborhood planetary environments. The flexible nature and thermal properties of these materials make them the best insulation candidates for advanced space suit application. This paper reviews the properties of various Aerogel composite materials developed for NASA by Aspen Systems, Inc. Previous studies showed that the Aerogel materials retained acceptable thermal performance after some amount of mechanical cycling. The goal of the current work is to reach a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of these materials in the domain of space suit application. Hence, a good knowledge of the durability of the aerogel composites is needed. This paper presents the extensive testing program needed to determine the life of these insulations for advanced space suit application.
Technical Paper

The Magnesium Hatchback of the 3-Liter Car: Processing and Corrosion Protection

2000-03-06
2000-01-1123
The hatchback of Volkswagen's 3 liter car (3 l fuel consumption per 100 km) consists of an inner component of die casting magnesium (AM50) covered with an aluminum panel from the outside. This hybrid design requires a new manufacturing process: The pre-coated magnesium part will be bonded and folded with the bare aluminum part. Corrosion protection is provided by an organic coating system which both protects against general corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The corrosion of the Al / Mg sandwich has been examined with hybrid samples which are similar to the hatchback. Several powder coatings (epoxy resin, polyester resin, hybrid resin), wet paints and cathodic electro-coating paints of different thicknesses and compositions have been applied to the magnesium part. They show that only powder coating provides adequate protection. Galvanic corrosion at the points of attachment of the hatchback might be possible (for example the bolted joint of the hinge).
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Lightweight Liquid Cooling Garments Using Highly Conductive Materials

2005-07-11
2005-01-2972
This paper presents the analysis findings of a study reducing the overall mass of the lightweight liquid cooling garment (LCG). The LCG is a garment worn by crew to actively cool the body, for spacesuits and launch/entry suits. A mass reduction of 66% was desired for advanced missions. A thermal math model of the LCG was developed to predict its performance when various mass-reducing changes were implemented. Changes included varying the thermal conductivity and thickness of the garment or of the coolant tubes servicing the garment. A second model was developed to predict behavior of the suit when the cooling tubes were to be removed, and replaced with a highly-conducting (waterless) material. Findings are presented that show significant reductions in weight are theoretically possible by improving conductivity in the garment material.
Journal Article

Combined Fluid Loop Thermal Management for Electric Drive Vehicle Range Improvement

2015-04-14
2015-01-1709
Electric drive vehicles (EDVs) have complex thermal management requirements not present in conventional vehicles. In addition to cabin conditioning, the energy storage system (ESS) and power electronics and electric motor (PEEM) subsystems also require thermal management. Many current-generation EDVs utilize separate cooling systems, adding both weight and volume, and lack abundant waste heat from an engine for cabin heating. Some use battery energy to heat the cabin via electrical resistance heating, which can result in vehicle range reductions of 50% under cold ambient conditions. These thermal challenges present an opportunity for integrated vehicle thermal management technologies that reduce weight and volume and increase cabin heating efficiency. Bench testing was conducted to evaluate a combined fluid loop technology that unifies the cabin air-conditioning and heating, ESS thermal management, and PEEM cooling into a single liquid coolant-based system.
Journal Article

Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0885
Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the veracity of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr.
Journal Article

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

Thermal Conductivity of Lofty Nonwovens in Space and Planetary Vacuum Environment

2001-07-09
2001-01-2166
For planetary exploration, new thermal insulation materials are needed to deal with unique environmental conditions presented to extravehicular activity (EVA). The thermal insulation material and system used in the existing space suit were specifically designed for low orbit environment. They are not adequate for low vacuum condition commonly found in planetary environments with a gas atmosphere. This study attempts to identify the types of lofty nonwoven thermal insulation materials and the construction parameters that yield the best performance for such application. Lofty nonwovens with different construction parameters are evaluated for their thermal conductivity performance. Three different types of fiber material: solid round fiber, hollow fiber, and grooved fiber, with various denier, needling intensity, and web density were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Design and Flight Qualification of a Paraffin-Actuated Heat Switch for Mars Surface Applications

2002-07-15
2002-01-2275
The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) flight system uses mechanical, paraffin-actuated heat switches as part of its secondary battery thermal control system. This paper describes the design, flight qualification, and performance of the heat switch. Although based on previous designs by Starsys Research Corporation1,2, the MER mission requirements have necessitated new design features and an extensive qualification program. The design utilizes the work created by the expansion of a paraffin wax by bringing into contact two aluminum surfaces, thereby forming a heat conduction path. As the paraffin freezes and contracts, compression springs separate the surfaces to remove the conduction path. The flight qualification program involved extensive thermal performance, structural, and life testing.
Technical Paper

Development Testing of a Paraffin-Actuated Heat Switch for Mars Rover Applications

2002-07-15
2002-01-2273
A paraffin-actuated heat switch has been developed for thermal control of the batteries used on the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers. The heat switch is used to reject heat from the rover battery to a radiator. This paper describes the development test program designed, in part, to measure the thermal conductance of the heat switch in an 8 Torr CO2 environment over the expected operating temperature range of the battery. The switch has a closed conductance of about 0.6 W/°C and an open conductance of 0.019 W/°C. The test program also included measuring the battery temperature profile over a hot case and a cold case Mars diurnal cycle. The test results confirm that the battery will remain well within the upper and lower allowable flight temperatures in both cases.
Technical Paper

A Total Organic Carbon Analyzer for Space Potable Water Systems

1996-07-01
961570
A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer has been developed for a Life Sciences Risk Mitigation Flight Experiment to be conducted on Spacehab and the Russian space station, Mir. Initial launch is scheduled for December 1996 (flight STS-81). The analyzer will be tested on the Orbiter in the Spacehab module, including when the Orbiter is docked at the Mir space station. The analyzer is scheduled to be launched again in May 1997 (STS-84) when it will be transferred to Mir. During both flights the analyzer will measure the quality of recycled and ground-supplied potable water on the space station. Samples will be archived for later return to the ground, where they will be analyzed for comparison to in-flight results. Water test samples of known composition, brought up with the analyzer, also will be used to test its performance in microgravity. Ground-based analyses of duplicates of those test samples will be conducted concurrently with the in-flight analyses.
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