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Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Metallic Substrate Design for Close Coupled Converter Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1262
The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Desulfurization Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-1428
The molecular filtration of sulfur components in ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel is described. A comprehensive screening of potential sulfur removal chemistries has yielded a sorbent which has the capability to efficiently remove organo-sulfur components in ULSD fuel. This sorbent has been used to treat ULSD fuel on a heavy duty engine equipped with NOx adsorber after-treatment technology and has been shown to lengthen the time between desulfation steps for the NOx adsorber. The fuel properties, cetane number and aromatics content, etc., have not been changed by the removal of the sulfur in the fuel with the exception of the lubricity which is reduced.
Technical Paper

Investigations into NOx Aftertreatment with Urea SCR for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2001-09-24
2001-01-3624
Future US emissions limits are likely to mean a sophisticated nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technique is required for all vehicles with a diesel engine, which is likely to be either NOx trap or selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology. To investigate the potential of SCR for NOx reduction on a light duty vehicle, a current model vehicle (EUII M1 calibration), of inertia weight 1810 kg, was equipped with an urea-based SCR injection system and non-vanadium, non-zeolitic SCR catalysts. To deal with carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and volatile organic fraction (VOF), a diesel oxidation catalyst was also incorporated into the system for most tests. Investigations into the effect of placing the oxidation catalyst at different positions in the system, changing the volume of the SCR catalysts, increasing system temperature through road load changes, varying the SCR catalyst composition, and changing the urea injection calibration are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalysts that Enable Low PGM Loadings for Future Mercosur Emissions Legislation

2002-11-19
2002-01-3551
This paper describes the development of new high performance three-way catalyst (TWC) formulations with improved activity and enhanced thermal stability. These new TWC formulations enable the converter to be fitted closer to the engine and allow this future legislation to be met with catalysts using PGM levels significantly lower than those currently being employed. The performance benefits of these advanced platinum- and palladium-based catalysts are demonstrated on a number of different vehicles after bench-engine ageing.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

2000-10-16
2000-01-2821
Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

High Performance Advanced Three-way Catalysts For The Proposed 2004 And 2008 Mercosur Emissions Standards

2000-12-01
2000-01-3303
Recently, significantly more demanding emissions standards for the Mercosur region were proposed, and the intention is that these will be introduced in 2004 and 2008. This paper describes the development of new high performance three-way catalyst formulations for conventional gasoline/gasohol fueled engines that enables them to meet these stringent standards without increasing the content of platinum group metals above the levels currently employed. The performance benefits of these advanced platinum and palladium-based catalysts are demonstrated on both engine bench and vehicles.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2005-10-24
2005-01-3769
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-0631
The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0079
A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.
Technical Paper

Field Test Trucks Fulfilling EPA'07 Emission Levels On-Road by Utilizing the Combined DPF and Urea-SCR System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0421
Two campaigns measuring on-road emissions of 23 VN-trucks on a randomly chosen driving cycle, consisting of 10 miles two-lane and 8 miles four-lane road were performed. The first, during October 2004, showed tailpipe NOx emissions on fleet average of 1.06 g/bhp-hr including the time the exhaust gas temperature was below 200°C. The second, during June 2005, showed tailpipe NOx emissions on fleet average of 1.13 g/bhp-hr including the time the exhaust gas temperature was below 200°C. Complementary measurements in a SET-cycle (13 point OICA-cycle) on a chassis dynamometer showed a tailpipe emission of 0.008 g PM per bhp-hr. Moreover, cost analysis show that the diesel fuel consumption remains unchanged whether the truck running on ULSD is equipped with a Combined Exhaust gas AfterTreatment System (CEATS) installed or not.
Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

2019-01-09
2019-26-0141
Various types of after-treatment system for BS VI Stage 1 are being assessed for the Light Duty Diesel (LDD) segment. For BS VI Stage 2, Real Driving Emission (RDE) assessment will be newly introduced, which will require more robustness in emission control system capability. Although the detailed requirements for India BS VI stage 2 are still being discussed, a reasonable assumption is that similar systems to those being developed for Euro 6d, will work for India BS VI. This paper describes typical system designs for Euro 6d and also reveals newly developed SCRF® (Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter) based systems, which demonstrate excellent RDE emissions. In addition, newly developed Lean NOx Trap (NSC) coatings, which focus on low temperature NOx control used with SCRF® (NSC + SCRF®) also show excellent emission control capability as demonstrated in this case on the ARTEMIS Cycle. These systems have potential as promising LDD solutions for India BS VI stage 2.
Technical Paper

A One-Dimensional Model for Square and Octo-Square Asymmetric Particulate Filters with Correct Description of the Channel and Wall Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0951
Asymmetric particulate filters (PF), where the inlet channel is wider than the outlet channel, are commonly used because of their greater capacity for ash. Somewhat surprisingly, very few models for asymmetric PFs have been published and none of these gives a correct/detailed description of the geometry. For example, octahedral channels may be treated as if they were square or the tapering walls between the inlet and outlet channels treated as if they were rectangular in cross section. Alternatively, the equations may be presented in generic form in terms of channel cross-sectional areas and perimeters, but without giving any indication of how to calculate these. This paper aims to address these deficiencies with a model that correctly describes the geometry of square and octo-square asymmetric PFs. Expressions for the solid fraction of the PF (which affects thermal mass) and channel cross section and perimeter (both when clean and soot/ash loaded) are presented.
Technical Paper

Impact of SCR Activity on Soot Regeneration and the Converse Effects of Soot Regeneration on SCR Activity on a Vanadia-SCRF®

2018-04-03
2018-01-0962
The influence of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) activity on soot regeneration was investigated using engine test measurements with and without urea dosing on a vanadia-SCRF®1, also known as a vanadia SCR coated diesel particulate filter (V.SCR-DPF). The extent and rate of passive soot regeneration is significantly reduced in the presence of SCR activity especially at high temperatures (>250 °C). The reduction in soot regeneration is because some of the NO2, which would otherwise react with the soot, is consumed by SCR reactions and consequently the rate of soot regeneration is lower when urea is dosed. The converse effects of soot oxidation on SCR activity were studied separately by analysing steady-state light-off engine measurements with different initial soot loadings on the V.SCR-DPF. The measurements show an increase in NOX conversion with increasing soot loading.
Technical Paper

Geometric Description of the Soot Cake in a One-Dimensional Model of an Octo-Square Asymmetric Particulate Filter

2019-04-02
2019-01-0991
Asymmetric particulate filters (PF), where the inlet channel is wider than the outlet channel, are commonly used because of their greater ash capacity. Surprisingly, very few models for asymmetric PFs have been published. This paper considers how to model the soot cake in octo-square asymmetric PFs. Some previous studies have neglected the octahedral shape of the inlet channel and instead assumed that the inlet channels were square. As the correct approach for modelling the soot cake is not obvious, three options are considered. The calculation of soot-loaded channel perimeter and hydraulic diameter (which are important for heat and mass transfer), soot thickness and backpressure as a function of soot loading are given for each geometry. In option 1, the shape of the soot-loaded channel is assumed to be geometrically similar to the soot-free channel.
Technical Paper

On-board Hydrogen Generation for PEM Fuel Cells in Automotive Applications

1999-03-04
1999-01-1320
In the search for clean and efficient power, PEM fuel cells have been identified as the technology that can meet our future needs for transport applications. Hydrogen-powered PEM fuel cell vehicles are perceived to give the ultimate advantage, but the complications involved with hydrogen storage and refuelling, as well as the lack of infrastructure call for a different solution. In the near term, this is almost certain to be the on-board generation of hydrogen from a readily available fuel. At Johnson Matthey, a novel modular reformer (HotSpot™) has been developed for methanol, and has been demonstrated to have many of the qualities that are required for automotive applications. Auxiliary technologies for CO removal (Demonox) and aftertreatment have also been developed, and integrated with the reformer to form 20 kWe processor, which is currently undergoing brass-board testing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Diesel Fuel Sulfur Level on Performance of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2000-06-19
2000-01-1876
This paper reports the test results from the DPF (diesel particulate filter) portion of the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects) Phase 1 test program. The DECSE program is a joint government and industry program to study the impact of diesel fuel sulfur level on aftertreatment devices. A systematic investigation was conducted to study the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on (1) the emissions performance and (2) the regeneration behavior of a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. The tests were conducted on a Caterpillar 3126 engine with nominal fuel sulfur levels of 3 parts per million (ppm), 30 ppm, 150 ppm and 350 ppm.
Technical Paper

Thermally Stable Pt/Rh Catalysts

1997-10-01
972909
The increasing severity in emission standards around the world has been accompanied by the development of more active, durable catalysts. With a view to investigating the effects of high thermal aging on the catalyst performance and structure, the relationships of washcoat composition, washcoat structure, and PGM location with respect to catalyst activity were clarified using a model gas test, as well as physical and chemical characterization methods. The influence of newly developed washcoat components and PGM location on catalyst performance are also demonstrated by engine bench tests. The results obtained in this study indicate the newly developed Pt/Rh catalyst techologies are appropriate for future applications in which the catalyst will be exposed to extremely high temperature and flowrates.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Diesel Exhaust

1996-10-01
962042
Reduction of nitrogen oxides in Diesel exhaust gas is a challenging task. This paper reports results from an extensive study using Pt-based catalysts involving synthetic gas activity testing (SCAT), engine bench testing and tests on passenger cars. Preliminary SCAT work highlighted the importance of Pt-dispersion, and both SCAT and bench engine testing yielded comparable NOx conversions under steady state conditions at high HC:NOx ratios. On passenger cars in the European cycle without secondary fuel injection NOx conversion was lower than obtained in the steady state tests. Better conversion was obtained in the FTP cycle, where secondary injection was employed. Higher HC:NOx, ratios and more favourable temperature conditions which were present in the exhaust contributed to this higher conversion.
Technical Paper

Comparison of De-NOx and Adsorber Catalysts to Reduce NOx - Emissions of Lean Burn Gasoline Engines

1996-10-01
962046
A comparison of two different types of NOx reducing catalysts will be worked out. The potential of two De-NOx catalysts using engine out hydrocarbon emissions for NOx conversion will be shown by variation of different engine parameters. An analysis of the hydrocarbon species upstream and downstream catalyst will demonstrate, which components are responsible for the NOx reduction in the exhaust gas of a lean burn engine. By variation of different parameters during adsorbtion and regeneration phases of the adsorber catalyst the efficiency in NOx reduction will be optimized. An assessment of the suitability for lean burn engines will consider the emission reduction efficiency as well as the influence on engine fuel consumption.
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