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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixtures in a 4 Stroke HCCI Engine by Using Elementary Reactions

HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is expected to a new engine to be high efficiency and low emission. But it is difficult to control ignition timing and combustion duration, because ignition and combustion mainly depend on oxidation process of fuel. In this study, the focus is to clear the combustion mechanism of auto-ignition engine. By calculating chemical kinetics of elementary reactions, effects of compression speed, equivalence ratio, initial temperature and compression ratio on auto-ignition were investigated. And also, behaviors of chemical species under auto-ignition process were cleared.
Journal Article

Closed-Loop Combustion Control of a HCCI Engine with Re-Breathing EGR System

This study experimentally investigates the control system and the algorithm after constructing a HCCI combustion control system for the development of a small HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME). This system can control four throttles for the mixing ratio of three gases of in-cylinder (stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas). At first, the combustion behavior for combustion phasing retarded operation with cold and hot EGR was examined. Then, the potential of model-based and feed back control for HCCI combustion with change of the demand of IMEP was investigated. In the end, the limit of combustion-phasing retard for IMEP and PRR was explored. Results shows that to get high IMEP with acceptable PRR and low coefficient of variation of IMEP, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50) should be controlled at constant phasing in the expansion stroke. CA50 can be controlled by changing the ratio of pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas with throttles.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Turbulent Flow in a High-Tumble SI Engine

The thermal efficiency of a spark-ignition (SI) engine must be improved to reduce both environmental load and fuel consumption. Although lean SI engine operation can strongly improve thermal efficiency relative to that of stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion increases with the air dilution level. Combustion CCV is caused by CCVs of many factors, such as EGR, spark energy, air-fuel ratio, and in-cylinder flow structure related to engine speed. This study focuses on flow structures, especially the influence of a tumble structure on flow fluctuation intensity near ignition timing. We measured the flow field at the vertical center cross section of an optically accessible high-tumble flow engine using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. There are many factors considered to be sources of CCV, we analyzed three factors: the intake jet distribution, distribution of vortex core position and trajectory of the fluid particle near the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Potential of Stratification Charge for Reducing Pressure-Rise Rate in HCCI Engines Based on Multi-Zone Modeling and Experiments by using RCM

The charge stratification has been thought as one of the ways to reduce the sharp pressure rises of HCCI combustion. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications for reducing pressure-rise rate of HCCI combustion. Using rapid compression machine, the stratified pre-mixture is charged, and compressed to analyze the change of in-cylinder gas pressure and temperature traces during compression process. Based on the experiment results, numerical calculations by CHEMKIN are conducted to more specifically analyze the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications on the reduction of pressure rise rate. Multi-zone model is used to simulate the thermal stratification, fuel stratification and EGR gas stratification of in-cylinder charge as like real engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel and EGR Stratification to Reduce Pressure-Rise Rates in a HCCI Engine

Problem of HCCI combustion is knocking due to a steep heat release by the ignition that is occurred in each local area at the same time. It is considered that dispersion of auto-ignition timing at each local area in the combustion chamber is necessary to prevent this problem. One of technique of this solution is to make thermal stratification. It could be made by using two-stage ignition fuel, which has large heat release at low temperature reaction. Dispersion of fuel concentration leads to difference of temperature histories while combustion phasing is dispersed at each local area. Also, EGR gas stratification could make difference of temperature histories at each local area because of that of the characteristics. This study examines the effect of mixing stratification by stratifying the charge of fuel and CO2. A single-cylinder engine equipped with optical access was used in experiments, and numerical analysis was executed.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of SI-HCCI Transition in a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine Fuelled with Propane

A simulation study was conducted to examine the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston engine fuelled with propane. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. The dynamic model included an analysis of the piston motion, based on Newton's second law. The linear alternator model included an analysis of electromagnetic force, which was considered to be a resistance force for the piston motion. The thermodynamic model was used to analysis thermodynamic processes in the engine cycle, including scavenging, compression, combustion, and expansion processes. Therein, the scavenging process was assumed to be a perfect process. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran.
Technical Paper

Influence of Compression Speed on HCCI Ignition and Combustion

In HCCI Engine, the HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to the engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the influence of engine speed was showed. And then, in order to clarify the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetic computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Potential of EGR stratification for Reducing Pressure Rise Rate in HCCI Combustion by using Rapid Compression Machine

HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is able to achieve low NOx and particulate emissions as well as high efficiency. However, its operation range is limited by the knocking at high load, which is the consequence of excessively rapid pressure rises. It has been suggested that making thermal or fuel inhomogeneities can be used to solve this problem, since these inhomogeneities have proved to create different auto-ignition timing zones. It has also been suggested that EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) has a potential to reduce pressure rise rate. But according to a past report, it was concluded that under the same fueling ratio and CA50 with different initial temperature and EGR ratio, the maximum PRR is almost constant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fundamental effects of EGR. First, I considered EGR homogeneous charge case. In this case, the effects of EGR and its components like CO₂, H₂O or N₂ on HCCI combustion process is argued.