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Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Diameter and EGR Ratio on the Flame Temperature and Soot Formation for Various Fuels

2001-05-07
2001-01-1939
In this study, effects of nozzle hole diameter and EGR ratio on flame temperature (indication of NO formation) and KL value (indication of soot formation) were investigated. Combustion of a single diesel fuel spray in the cylinder of a rapid compression machine (RCM) was analyzed. Three nozzles with different hole diameter were used corresponding to present, near term and long term heavy duty diesel engine specifications. EGR was simulated through 2%vol. CO2 addition to the inlet air and by increase of in-cylinder surrounding gas temperature. Various types of fuels were used in this. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel fuel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography and by indicated pressure diagrams. Flame temperature and KL factor were analyzed by a two-color method. With larger nozzle hole diameters there are larger high temperature areas. With smaller nozzle hole diameters there is more soot formed. Introduction of 2% vol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Aromatics Content and 90% Distillation Temperature of Diesel Fuels on Flame Temperature and Soot Formation

2001-05-07
2001-01-1940
In this study, the effects of fuel properties, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature T90, on flame temperature and soot formation were studied using a rapid compression machine (RCM). Aromatics content and T90 distillation temperature were parameters isolated from influence of each other, and from cetane number. A fuel spray was injected in the RCM combustion chamber by a single nozzle hole. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography. Flame temperature and KL factor (which indicates the soot concentration), were analyzed by the two-color method. The rate of heat release was analyzed from indicated diagrams. The fuels with aromatics content showed higher flame temperature. The fuel with highest T90 distillation temperature showed highest flame temperature.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Delivery Ratio Characteristics of Crankcase-Scavenged Two-Stroke Cycle Engines

1969-02-01
690136
In order to increase the air charge of crankcase-scavenged two-stroke cycle engines, the relations between delivery ratio and engine speed were investigated on a rotary disc-valve inlet port engine and on a conventional piston-valve inlet port engine by varying through wide limits the angle area and timing of the inlet port. For the inlet port configuration tested on the first engine, it was found that there was an optimum cut angle of the rotary disc valve, which produced a certain angle area. To improve the delivery ratio characteristics at a given speed, it was not necessary to change this angle area; it was effective to change only the timing of the inlet port by shifting the disc valve around the crankshaft. For the piston-valve inlet port engine, the results showed that a wide, low port, which was also found to have a higher flow coefficient, produced a higher delivery ratio over the entire engine speed range than a narrow, high port.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Inhomogeneity on the Pressure Rise Rate in HCCI engine using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-09-28
2010-32-0097
Theoretically, homogeneous charge compression engines (HCCI) are able to grant a high thermal efficiency, as well as a low NOx and particulate emissions. This ability is mainly due to the combustion process, which, contrary to both Diesel and Gasoline engine, is homogeneous in time and space within the combustion chamber. But despite these advantages, the engine operating condition is limited by the narrow boundaries of misfire at low load and knocking at high load. For that matter, one of the numerous ways of overcoming knocking is to deliberately create fuel inhomogeneities within the combustion chamber, since it has proved to lengthen combustion duration and to drastically reduce maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Nevertheless, though the global effects of fuel inhomogeneities on PRR have been studied, we lack information that explains this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

A Study for Generating Power on Operating Parameters of Powerpack Utilizing Linear Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0061
The research shows the experimental results for a free piston linear engine according to operation conditions of the linear engine and the structure of linear generator for generating electric power. The powerpack used in this paper consists of the two-stroke free piston linear engine, linear generators and air compressors. Each parameter of fuel input heat, equivalence ratio, spark timing delay, electrical resistance and air gap length were set up to identify the combustion characteristics and to examine the performance of linear engine. The linear engine was fueled with propane. In the course of all linear engine operations, intake air was inputted under the wide open throttle state. Air and fuel mass flow rate were varied by using mass flow controller and these were premixed by pre-mixing device. Subsequently, pre-mixture was directly supplied into each cylinder.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of Controlling the Interval between Two Heat-Release Peaks for Noise Reduction in Split-injection PCCI Combustion

2015-09-01
2015-01-1851
In PCCI combustion with multiple injections, the mechanism having two heat release peaks which has a favorable characteristic of reducing noise is studied using numerical tool of single- and also multi-zone model of CHEMKIN PRO. In the present investigation, the physical issues, such as variations in the equivalent ratio and temperature caused by the fuel injection are simplified first so that the key issues of chemical reaction occurred in the combustion chamber can be extracted and are discussed in detail. The results show that the interval of two heat-release peaks can be controlled and as the number of zones of the calculation increases, the change in the timing of a heat release peak is increased but over three-zones, it is not affected any more. This indicates that to study about complex diesel combustion phenomena, three-to four-zone model shall give sufficiently accurate results.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Spark Discharge Pattern and Tumble Level on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion at Lean Limits of SI Engine Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0677
Improving the thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine is strongly required due to its widespread use but considerably less efficiency than that of compression ignition (CI) engine. Although lean SI engine operation can offer substantial improvements of the thermal efficiency relative to that of traditional stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion increases with the level of air dilution, and becomes unacceptable. To improve the stability of lean operation, this study examines the effects of spark discharge pattern and tumble level on cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion at lean limits. The spark discharge pattern was altered by a custom inductive ignition system using ten spark coils and the tumble level was increased by a custom adapter installed in the intake port (tumble adapter).
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Concentration Inhomogeneity on HCCI Combustion -Fuel Concentration of Pre-Mixture Using LIF measurement-

2015-09-01
2015-01-1788
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine has a problem which causes knocking when the maximum PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) reaches a certain level because it takes the form of combustion of simultaneous multi-point ignition by compression of the air-fuel pre-mixture. This study focused on stratified charge of fuel in combustion chamber. This method disperses the timing of local ignition. The distribution of fuel concentration is measured by using LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence). As a result, the maximum PRR is reduced by stratified charge of fuel. In addition, it is confirmed that the dispersion of combustion timing depends on the dispersion of fuel concentration.
Technical Paper

The Research About the Effects of Thermal Stratification on n-Heptane/iso-Octane-Air Mixture HCCI Combustion Using a Rapid Compression Machine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3319
The HCCI combustion mode poses its own set of narrow engine operating by knocking. In order to solve this, inhomogeneity method of mixture and temperature is suggested. The purpose of this research is to get fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on HCCI combustion of n-Heptane/iso-Octane-Air mixture. The temperature stratification is made by buoyancy effect in combustion chamber of RCM. The analysis items are pressure, temperature of in-cylinder gas and combustion duration. In addition, the structure of flames using the two dimensional chemiluminescence's images by a framing camera are analyzed. Under stratification, the LTR starting time and the HTR starting time are advanced than that of homogeneous. Further, the LTR period of homogeneous conditions became shorter than that of the stratified conditions. . With the case of homogeneous condition, the luminosity duration becomes shorter than the case of stratified condition.
Technical Paper

Study on Wear Mechanism by Soot Contaminated in Engine Oil (First Report: Relation Between Characteristics of Used Oil and Wear)

1999-10-25
1999-01-3573
Increase of soot contaminated in engine oil caused by EGR system accelerates the diesel engine wear, especially in the valve train. Wear of metal is affected by many factors such as concentration and diameter of soot, oil film thickness, oil characteristics, etc. Effects of soot on metal wear were discussed from the point of view of soot concentration, and soot diameter and oil film thickness. Wear test was carried out by using four-ball wear tester. Consequently, it was made clear that wear increases proportionally to soot concentration, and relation between oil film thickness and soot diameter plays very important role in wear mechanism. Further, the surface of wear scar was observed by SEM to discuss effect of soot diameter on wear and existence of abrasive wear by soot and its occurrence conditions were suggested.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux Flowing Into Metallic and Ceramic Combustion Chamber Walls

2000-06-19
2000-01-1815
Accurate measurements of combustion gas temperature and the coefficient of heat transfer between the gas and the combustion chamber wall of internal combustion engine in cyclic operations are difficult at present. Hence the only method available for determination of states of thermal load and heat loss to the combustion chamber wall in a cycle is to measure the instantaneous temperature on the combustion chamber wall surface accurately and precisely using proper thin-film thermocouples, then to calculate the instantanenous heat flux flowing into the wall surface by means of numerical analysis. However, it is necessary to pay adequate attention to the effects of thermophysical properties of the thermocouple materials on the measured values, since any thermocouple consists of several kinds of materials which are different from those of portions to be measured.
Technical Paper

Two–Dimensional Imaging of Formaldehyde Formed During the Ignition Process of a Diesel Fuel Spray

2000-03-06
2000-01-0236
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Thermal Stratification on HCCI Combustion by using Rapid Compression Machine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1870
A significant drawback to HCCI engines is the knocking caused by rapid increases in pressure. Such knocking limits the capacity for high-load operation. To solve this problem, thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been suggested as possible solution. Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce the maximum value of the rate of pressure increase combustion by affecting the local combustion start time and extending the duration of combustion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally obtain fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion process. Experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM) equipped with a quartz window to provide optical access to the combustion chamber. The machine was fueled with DME, n-Butane, n-Heptane and iso-Octane, all of which are currently being investigated as alternative fuels and have different low temperature characteristics.
Technical Paper

Heat Rejection/Retention Characteristics of a Re-deployable Radiator for Venus Exploration Mission

2007-07-09
2007-01-3241
This paper experimentally and analytically evaluates the heat rejection/retention performance of a reversible thermal panel (RTP) which can autonomously change thermal performance depending on its own thermal conditions. The RTP is considered as a candidate methodology for thermal control of Venus mission, PLANET-C, in order to save survival heater power. An RTP prototype was tested and evaluated. An analytical thermal model of the RTP was also developed, and basic performances of the RTP were evaluated. Thermal performance of the RTP when applied to the longwave camera (LIR) of the PLANET-C was evaluated with an analytical thermal model as functions of fin deployment directions and rear surface properties of the RTP's fin. The analytical results showed that the RTP can save heater power in comparison to a conventional radiator.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of a Passive Deployable/Stowable Radiator

2006-07-17
2006-01-2038
A lightweight 100 W-class deployable radiator with environment-adaptive functions has been investigated. This radiator - Reversible Thermal Panel (RTP) - is composed of flexible high thermal conductive materials and a passive reversible actuator, and it changes its function from a radiator to a solar absorber by deploying/stowing the reversible fin upon changes in the heat dissipation and thermal environment. The RTP is considered one of the candidates of thermal control methodology for the Japanese Venus mission “Planet-C”, which will be launched in 2010 to save its survival heater power. In this paper, design and fabrication of the RTP proto-model (PM) and the test results of deployment/stowing characteristics in an atmospheric condition are reported. Thermal performance estimation with thermal analytical model of the RTP PM is also presented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flexible Thermal Control Device with High-Thermal-Conductivity Graphite Sheets

2003-07-07
2003-01-2471
This paper describes a new passive thermal control device-a Reversible Thermal Panel (RTP)-which changes its function reversibly from a radiator to a solar absorber by deploying/stowing the radiator/absorber reversible fin. The RTP consists of Highly Oriented Graphite Sheets (HOGSs), which have characteristics of high thermal conductivity, flexibility and light weight, as thermal transport units, which can transport the heat from equipment to reversible fin, and of a Shape - Memory Alloy (SMA) as a passively rotary actuator to deploy/stow the reversible fin. The RTP prototype model was designed and fabricated using HOGSs, a honeycomb base palate, and a prototype reversible rotary actuator. The heat rejection performance of the RTP as a radiator and the heat absorption performance as an absorber were evaluated by thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses. The autonomous thermal controllability achieved using the prototype rotary actuator was also evaluated.
Technical Paper

Smart Radiation Device: Design of an Intelligent Material with Variable Emittance

2001-07-09
2001-01-2342
Variable emittance radiator, called SRD, is a thin and light ceramic tile whose infrared emissivity is varied proportionally by its own temperature. Bonded only to the external surface of spacecrafts, it controls the heat radiated to deep space without electrical or mechanical parts such as the thermal louver. By applying this new device for thermal control of spacecrafts, considerable weight and cost reductions can be achieved easily. In this paper, the new design and the new manufacturing process of the SRD and its optical properties, such as the total hemispherical emittance and the solar absorptance, are described. By introducing this new design and manufacturing process, the weight of the SRD is easily decreased, keeping its strength and the optical properties.
Technical Paper

Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Mechanism of HCCI Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0095
In the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine, a mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the cylinder and auto-ignition occurs resulting from compression. This method can expand the lean flammability limit, realizing smokeless combustion and also having the potential for realizing low NOx and high efficiency. The optimal ignition timing is necessary in order to keep high thermal efficiency. The Ignition in the HCCI engine largely depends on the chemical reaction between the fuel and the oxidizer. Physical methods in conventional engines cannot control it, so a chemical method is demanded. Combustion duration is maintained properly to avoid knocking. In addition, the amount of HC and CO emissions must be reduced. The objective of this study is to clarify the following through calculations with detailed chemical reactions and through experiment with the 2-stroke HCCI engine: the chemical reaction mechanism, and HC and CO emission mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Charge Inhomogeneity on HCCI Combustion by Chemiluminescence Measurement

2004-06-08
2004-01-1902
In the HCCI Engine, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution and temperature in the pre-mixture exists microscopically, and has the possibility of affecting the ignition and combustion process. In this study, the effect of charge inhomogeneity in fuel distribution on the HCCI combustion process was investigated. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured by using a framing camera with an optically accessible engine in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. DME was used as a test fuel. By changing a device for mixing air and fuel in the intake manifold, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution in the pre-mixture was varied. The result shows that luminescence is observed in a very short time in a large part of the combustion chamber under the homogeneous condition, while luminescence appears locally with considerable time differences under the inhomogeneous condition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature-Pressure Time History on Auto-Ignition Delay of Air-Fuel Mixture

2018-09-10
2018-01-1799
When the compression ratio of the spark ignition engine is set high as a method of improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, it is often combined with the direct fuel injection system for knock mitigation. In port injection, there are also situations where the fuel is guided into the cylinder while the vaporization is insufficient, especially at the cold start. If the fuel is introduced into the cylinder in a liquid state, the temperature in the cylinder will change due to sensible heat and latent heat of the fuel during vaporization. Further, if the fuel is unevenly distributed in the cylinder, the effect of the specific heat is added, and the local temperature difference is expanded through the compression process. In this research, an experiment was conducted using a rapid compression machine for the purpose of discussing the effect of the temperature-pressure time history of fuel on ignition delay time.
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