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Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Thermal Stratification on HCCI Combustion by using Rapid Compression Machine

A significant drawback to HCCI engines is the knocking caused by rapid increases in pressure. Such knocking limits the capacity for high-load operation. To solve this problem, thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been suggested as possible solution. Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce the maximum value of the rate of pressure increase combustion by affecting the local combustion start time and extending the duration of combustion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally obtain fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion process. Experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM) equipped with a quartz window to provide optical access to the combustion chamber. The machine was fueled with DME, n-Butane, n-Heptane and iso-Octane, all of which are currently being investigated as alternative fuels and have different low temperature characteristics.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Road Side NOx Pollution Exhausted by On-Road Driving Diesel Vehicle - Comparison between Vehicle Adopted for New Long Term Regulation and Vehicle Adopted for Long Term Regulation Using On-board Measurement System

Nitrogen oxides, collectively called NOx, from diesel vehicles are considered to be accumulated by particular area of roadsides, so-called "Hot-spot," and result in harmful influence to pedestrians and residents by roadsides. Japanese regulations over emissions of diesel vehicles have been tightened year by year and adopting regulations, emissions in mode test on chassis dynamometer or engine dynamometer have reduced. In this research, it was investigated the effect of introduce of transient mode test, Japanese JE05 mode, to NOx emission in real world and to roadside NOx pollution by road test using on-board measurement system. As test vehicles, 2 ton diesel vehicle which is adopted for Long Term Regulation (steady-state mode test, Diesel 31 mode test, 1998) and 3 ton diesel vehicle adopted for New Long Term Regulation (transient mode test, Japanese JE05 mode, 2005) with on-board measurement system was used.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on DME HCCI Engine about Combustion Phase Control using EGR Stratification by Numerical Analysis

This work has been investigated the potential of in-cylinder EGR stratification for reducing the pressure rise rate of DME HCCI engines, and the coupling of both thermal stratification and fuel stratification. The numerical analyses were done by using five-zone version of CHEMKIN-II kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanics for DME. The effects of inert components were used for the presence of EGR in calculation. Three cases of EGR stratification were tested on both thermal stratification and fuel stratification at the fixed initial temperature, pressure and fueling rate at BDC. In order to explore the appropriate stratification of EGR, EGR width was employed from zero to thirty percent. Firstly, EGR homogeneity case which means EGR width zero was examined. Secondly, EGR is located densely in hotter zone for combining with thermal stratification or in richer zone for a combination with fuel stratification. Lastly, the case was judged inversely with the second case.
Technical Paper

The Research about Engine Optimization and Emission Characteristic of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Natural Gas and Diesel

CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Spark Discharge Pattern and Tumble Level on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion at Lean Limits of SI Engine Operation

Improving the thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine is strongly required due to its widespread use but considerably less efficiency than that of compression ignition (CI) engine. Although lean SI engine operation can offer substantial improvements of the thermal efficiency relative to that of traditional stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion increases with the level of air dilution, and becomes unacceptable. To improve the stability of lean operation, this study examines the effects of spark discharge pattern and tumble level on cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion at lean limits. The spark discharge pattern was altered by a custom inductive ignition system using ten spark coils and the tumble level was increased by a custom adapter installed in the intake port (tumble adapter).
Technical Paper

Effects of Aromatics Content and 90% Distillation Temperature of Diesel Fuels on Flame Temperature and Soot Formation

In this study, the effects of fuel properties, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature T90, on flame temperature and soot formation were studied using a rapid compression machine (RCM). Aromatics content and T90 distillation temperature were parameters isolated from influence of each other, and from cetane number. A fuel spray was injected in the RCM combustion chamber by a single nozzle hole. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography. Flame temperature and KL factor (which indicates the soot concentration), were analyzed by the two-color method. The rate of heat release was analyzed from indicated diagrams. The fuels with aromatics content showed higher flame temperature. The fuel with highest T90 distillation temperature showed highest flame temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Diameter and EGR Ratio on the Flame Temperature and Soot Formation for Various Fuels

In this study, effects of nozzle hole diameter and EGR ratio on flame temperature (indication of NO formation) and KL value (indication of soot formation) were investigated. Combustion of a single diesel fuel spray in the cylinder of a rapid compression machine (RCM) was analyzed. Three nozzles with different hole diameter were used corresponding to present, near term and long term heavy duty diesel engine specifications. EGR was simulated through 2%vol. CO2 addition to the inlet air and by increase of in-cylinder surrounding gas temperature. Various types of fuels were used in this. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel fuel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography and by indicated pressure diagrams. Flame temperature and KL factor were analyzed by a two-color method. With larger nozzle hole diameters there are larger high temperature areas. With smaller nozzle hole diameters there is more soot formed. Introduction of 2% vol.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the combustion dispersion mechanism in HCCI Engine

Delaying CA50(Crank Angle of 50% Heat Release) of the HCCI engine to expansion stroke can lead to high indicated thermal efficiency as well as the avoidance of knocking. However, this method could induce the problem of cycle variability. In this study, the cycle-to-cycle variation of a HCCI engine fueled with DME was investigated. Experimental parameters of each cycle, such as in-cylinder temperature, pressure and gas flow rate, were recorded by fast response system, and analyzed consequently. Moreover, the interdependency between the combustion and the performance parameters were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Development of the Control System Using EGR for the HCCI Engine Running on DME

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine attracts much attention because of its high thermal efficiency and low NOx, PM emissions. On the other hand, Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is expected as one of alternative fuel for the internal combustion engines. In this study, four-stroke HCCI engine running on DME is developed to make it realistic application in production engines. This paper shows construction of the control method using both internal EGR at high temperature and external EGR at low temperature and estimates the performance of developed HCCI engine. Besides combustion characteristics of DME and the effects of EGR are researched with experiment and numerical calculation with elementary reactions. As a result, developed HCCI engine got comparable high thermal efficiency to conventional diesel engine but much lower Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) than that. Meanwhile it can be said that DME is suitable fuel for the HCCI engines in combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Discharge Characteristic on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion for Lean SI Operation with High Tumble Flow

It has been shown that lean burn is effective for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline SI engines. This happens because the reduction of heat loss by decrease of flame temperature. On the other hand, the fuel dilution of the premixed gas makes the combustion speed low, and cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion are increased by excessive dilution, it is difficult to increase the thermal efficiency of the gasoline SI engine. Influence of ignition by spark discharge is considered as a factor of combustion variation, and it is necessary to understand the effects of spark discharge characteristics on the lean combustion process. Spark discharge in the SI engines supplies energy to the premixed-gas via a discharge channel in the spark plug gap which ignites the premixed-gas. The discharge channel is elongated by in-cylinder gas flow and its behavior varies in each cycles.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion Control by Using Internal and External EGR for HCCI Engines Fuelled with DME

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is possible to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions. One of the main challenges with HCCI engines is structuring the systems to control combustion phasing, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50), for keeping high thermal efficiency and avoiding an excessive rate of pressure rise which causes knocking, when operating conditions vary. Though some HCCI combustion control systems, for example Variable Valve Timing System and Variable Compression Ratio System, have been suggested, these control systems are complex and heavy. In this study, for the development of a lightweight and small-sized generator HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME) which is low-emission and easy to autoignite, a simple HCCI combustion control system is suggested, and the control system is evaluated experimentally.
Technical Paper

Effect of Degree of Unmixedness on HCCI Combustion Based on Experiment and Numerical Analysis

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of in-cylinder gas temperature stratification on reducing the pressure-rise rate in HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion was investigated using an optically accessible engine and direct visualization of the combustion chemiluminescence. The engine was fueled with Di-Methyl Ether. Computational work was conducted on the gas compression and expansion strokes in HCCI engine with simple 0-dimensinal multi-zones model. When fuel inhomogeneous charging in experiment, maximum heat release rate decreased. Combustion duration got longer. Maximum pressure-rise rate decreased. Chemiluminescence, of which transition was identified from the side of intake valve to the side of exhaust valve, was observed. It is need for total moderate heat release to get local moderate combustion with not overall but continuous combustion in chamber.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Charge Inhomogeneity on HCCI Combustion by Chemiluminescence Measurement

In the HCCI Engine, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution and temperature in the pre-mixture exists microscopically, and has the possibility of affecting the ignition and combustion process. In this study, the effect of charge inhomogeneity in fuel distribution on the HCCI combustion process was investigated. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured by using a framing camera with an optically accessible engine in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. DME was used as a test fuel. By changing a device for mixing air and fuel in the intake manifold, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution in the pre-mixture was varied. The result shows that luminescence is observed in a very short time in a large part of the combustion chamber under the homogeneous condition, while luminescence appears locally with considerable time differences under the inhomogeneous condition.
Technical Paper

Study on Wear Mechanism by Soot Contaminated in Engine Oil (First Report: Relation Between Characteristics of Used Oil and Wear)

Increase of soot contaminated in engine oil caused by EGR system accelerates the diesel engine wear, especially in the valve train. Wear of metal is affected by many factors such as concentration and diameter of soot, oil film thickness, oil characteristics, etc. Effects of soot on metal wear were discussed from the point of view of soot concentration, and soot diameter and oil film thickness. Wear test was carried out by using four-ball wear tester. Consequently, it was made clear that wear increases proportionally to soot concentration, and relation between oil film thickness and soot diameter plays very important role in wear mechanism. Further, the surface of wear scar was observed by SEM to discuss effect of soot diameter on wear and existence of abrasive wear by soot and its occurrence conditions were suggested.
Technical Paper

Development of On-Board System to Measure Running Condition and Actual NOx Emissions from Freight Vehicle

It is necessary to clarify the influence on NOx emissions by driver's operation for analyzing of NOx pollution mechanism at roadside. Simple on-board measurement system for vehicle running condition and actual NOx emissions was developed to evaluate local NOx pollution caused by vehicles. The measurement system was installed in a freight vehicle whose payload is two tons, and actual driving test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. The tests on chassis dynamometer including steady state and transient mode indicated enough accuracy to evaluate NOx emissions from a vehicle at local roadsides.
Technical Paper

Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Mechanism of HCCI Engine

In the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine, a mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the cylinder and auto-ignition occurs resulting from compression. This method can expand the lean flammability limit, realizing smokeless combustion and also having the potential for realizing low NOx and high efficiency. The optimal ignition timing is necessary in order to keep high thermal efficiency. The Ignition in the HCCI engine largely depends on the chemical reaction between the fuel and the oxidizer. Physical methods in conventional engines cannot control it, so a chemical method is demanded. Combustion duration is maintained properly to avoid knocking. In addition, the amount of HC and CO emissions must be reduced. The objective of this study is to clarify the following through calculations with detailed chemical reactions and through experiment with the 2-stroke HCCI engine: the chemical reaction mechanism, and HC and CO emission mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Basic Research on the Suitable Fuel for HCCI Engine From the Viewpoint of Chemical Reaction

In this study, attention was paid to the method of mixing fuel to solve one of problems of the HCCI engine, which is the avoidance of knocking. The objectives of the work reported in this paper were to research the characteristics of HCCI combustion of the Methane/DME/air pre-mixture in the experiment and to check the oxidation reaction in two cases: when DME was used as an ignition accelerator for the Methane/air pre-picture, and when Hydrogen was used as ignition accelerator. Furthermore, from these results reference was made about basic specifications required fuel for an HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of IMEP using External EGR and Rebreathed EGR in an HCCI Engine, Based on Experimental and Single-Zone Modeling

The characteristics of cycle-to-cycle variations of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) with combustion-phasing retard have been investigated experimentally and computationally in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using dimethyl ether (DME). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) passage for external EGR and a two-stage exhaust cam for rebreathed EGR. To understand the chemical effects of rebreathed EGR, which is assumed to contribute to the autoignition enhancement, the computations were performed with a single-zone model of CHEMKIN using a chemical-kinetic mechanism developed by combining DME mechanism and NOx submechanism.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Influence of Inhomogeneity of Air-Fuel Mixture to Super-Knock Caused by Pre-ignition in Supercharged Direct-Injected SI Engine Based on Numerical Calculation

Nowadays, highly super charging is required corresponded to downsizing concept for improving thermal efficiency in direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine. However, highly super charging increases the possibility of super-knock caused by pre-ignition. Recently, in many studies, the reason of pre-ignition has been investigated but the reason why pre-ignition leads such strong knocking called super-knock has not been investigated. In DISI engine, it is estimated that there is more inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio and temperature of air-fuel mixture than it in port injection SI engine. In this study, factors which decide self-ignition timing was reviewed and the influence of inhomogeneity of air-fuel mixture to super-knock was investigated based on numerical calculation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of a Potential of Dedicated EGR System for Increasing Thermal Efficiency of SI Engines Fueled with Methane and Propane

This study tried to find a potential of dedicated EGR (d-EGR) system added to the four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine to decrease heat loss (Qheatloss) and improve thermal efficiency (ηth). Test fuels were chosen by methane and propane. PREMIX code in CHEMKIN-PRO was employed to calculate laminar burning velocity (SL) and flame temperature (Tf). Wiebe function and Wocshni's heat transfer coefficient were considered to calculate ηth. The results show that the d-EGR system increased ηth and it was higher than that of stoichiometric combustion of conventional SI engines due to the low Tf and fast SL.