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Technical Paper

Investigation of Airflow Induced Whistle Noise by HVAC Control Doors Utilizing a ‘V-Shape’ Rubber Seal

2011-05-17
2011-01-1615
Doors inside an automotive HVAC module are essential components to ensure occupant comfort by controlling the cabin temperature and directing the air flow. For temperature control, the function of a door is not only to close/block the airflow path via the door seal that presses against HVAC wall, but also control the amount of hot and cold airflow to maintain cabin temperature. To meet the stringent OEM sealing requirement while maintaining a cost-effective product, a “V-Shape” soft rubber seal is commonly used. However, in certain conditions when the door is in the position other than closed which creates a small gap, this “V-Shape” seal is susceptible to the generation of objectionable whistle noise for the vehicle passengers. This nuisance can easily reduce end-customer satisfaction to the overall HVAC performance.
Technical Paper

Development of the Kettering University Snowmobile for the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2009-11-03
2009-32-0177
Affordable clean snowmobile technology has been developed. The goals of this design included reducing exhaust emissions to levels which are below the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 standard. Additionally, noise levels were to be reduced to below the noise mandates of 78 dB(A). Further, this snowmobile can operate using any blend of gasoline and ethanol from E0 to E85. Finally, achieving these goals would be a hollow victory if the cost and performance of the snowmobile were severely compromised. Snowmobiling is, after all, a recreational sport; thus the snowmobile must remain fun to drive and cost effective to produce. The details of this design effort including performance data are discussed in this paper. Specifically, the effort to modify a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine is described. This snowmobile was modified to run on a range of ethanol blended fuels using a closed-loop engine control system.
Technical Paper

Design, Analysis, and Development Testing of Large Hood Plastic Mounted Trim Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0490
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol for the 2008 Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2008-09-09
2008-32-0053
Clean snowmobile technology has been developed using methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Additionally, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. Finally, a number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. The results of these efforts include emissions reductions of 94% when compared with snowmobiles operating at the 2012 U.S. Federal requirements.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effect of Enhanced Mixing on Combustion and Emissions in Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0606
A numerical and experimental study of the use of air motion control, piston bowl shape, and injector configuration on combustion and emissions in diesel engines has been conducted. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of flow control within the piston bowl during compression to enhance fuel air mixing to achieve a uniform air-fuel mixture to reduce soot and NO emissions. In addition to flow control different piston bowl geometries and injector spray angles have been considered and simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and experiments. The results include cylinder pressure and emissions measurements and contour plots of fuel mass fraction, soot, and NO. The results show that soot and NO emissions can be reduced by proper flow control and piston bowl design.
Technical Paper

Use of a Designed Experiment to Determine the Optimal Method to Join Injection-Molded Parts to Pultrusions

2006-10-31
2006-01-3575
A coupler has been developed to prevent windshield wiper systems from being damaged by excessive loads that can occur when the normal wiping pattern is restricted. The coupler is composed of a pultruded composite rod with injection-molded plastic spherical joints (a.k.a. sockets) attached at either end. The sockets are used to attach the coupler to the crank and rocker of the windshield wiper linkage. Because the loads exerted on a coupler vary in magnitude and direction during a wiping cycle, the joint between the sockets and the pultruded composite rod must be robust. The paradigm for attaching sockets to steel couplers (i.e. over-molding the sockets around holes stamped into the ends of traditional steel couplers) was applied to the pultruded rods, tested, and found to produce inadequate joint strength. This paper details the methodology that was employed to produce and optimize an acceptable means to attach the injection-molded sockets to the pultruded rods.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for the 2006 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2006-11-13
2006-32-0051
Kettering University's entry for the 2006 Clean Snowmobile challenge utilizes a Polaris FST Switchback. This snowmobile having a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on ethanol (E-85). The student team has designed and built a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters to minimize engine out emissions. A number of improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Multiple Spark Discharge Ignition System and Spark Plug Electrode Configuration on Cold Starting of a Dedicated E85 Fueled Vehicle

1999-08-02
1999-01-2664
This paper describes the experiments conducted to determine the effect of high energy multiple spark discharge (MSD) ignition systems and spark plug electrode design, on the cold start performance of a vehicle which was converted for dedicated operation on E85 (a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel. Tests were conducted using three different ignition configurations; original equipment manufacturer (OEM) ignition and spark plugs, high energy multiple spark discharge (MSD) ignition with OEM, J-type spark plugs, and high energy MSD ignition with surface gap electrode spark plugs. The high energy MSD ignition with OEM spark plugs showed a significant improvement in cold start performance over the OEM ignition. The addition of the surface gap spark plugs caused a decrease in cold start performance. Despite this, the surface gap spark plugs produced higher ending coolant temperature than the other configurations.
Technical Paper

Designing Axial Flow Fan for Flow and Noise

1999-09-14
1999-01-2817
A comprehensive finite element methodology is developed to predict the compressible flow performance of a non-symmetric 7-blade axial flow fan, and to quantify the source strength and sound pressure levels at any location in the system. The acoustic and flow performances of the fan are predicted simultaneously using a computational aero-acoustic technique combining transient flow analysis and noise propagation. The calculated sound power levels compare favorably with the measured sound power data per AMCA 300-96 code.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Whirling Speeds of Pultruded Composite Shafts

1999-03-01
1999-01-1028
The objective of this paper is to determine the whirling bending critical speeds of pultruded composite shafts in simply supported boundary conditions. Theoretical studies have been carried using Patran to determine the natural frequencies and the mode shapes for the Jeffcot and Kikuchi rigid rotor models. A tabletop experimental apparatus has been fabricated and the bending critical speeds have been measured for various span lengths between the supports. The results of this study may be useful in identifying whether pultruded composite shafts can be employed as drive shafts in automotive or other industries.
Technical Paper

The Determination of Air/Fuel Ratio Differences Between Cylinders in a Production Engine Using Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensors

1999-03-01
1999-01-1170
Cylinder air/fuel ratio distribution is an important factor affecting the economy, power, vibration, and emissions of an internal combustion engine. Currently, production automobiles utilize an exhaust gas sensor located in the main exhaust stream in order to regulate air/fuel mixtures. By measuring the oxygen content of the exhaust gas for each cylinder independently, the degree of air/fuel variation between cylinders can be determined. This information can be used to determine the mixture quality of specific cylinders. Knowing these variances can lead to design changes in the intake and exhaust manifolds as well as better control of fuel metering which will improve the output of the engine. This study was carried out using a 1991 3.8L Buick V-6 engine with customized exhaust manifolds utilizing exhaust gas oxygen sensors for each cylinder in addition to the sensor located in the main combined exhaust gas stream. Production level, ZrO2 sensors were used for this experimental study.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Retained Fluid and Humidity on the Evacuation of Critical Vehicle Systems

1999-05-10
1999-01-1630
In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for the 2005 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2005-10-24
2005-01-3679
Kettering University's Clean Snowmobile Challenge student design team has developed a new robust and innovative snowmobile for the 2005 competition. This snowmobile dramatically reduces exhaust and noise emissions and improves fuel economy compared with a conventional snowmobile. Kettering University has utilized a modified snowmobile in-line four cylinder, four-stroke, engine. The team added an electronically-controlled fuel-injection system with oxygen sensor feedback to this engine. This engine has been installed into a 2003 Yamaha RX-1 snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions have been further minimized through the use of a customized catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system. A newly designed and tuned exhaust as well as several chassis treatments have aided in minimizing noise emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol

2007-10-30
2007-32-0114
Kettering University has developed a cleaner and quieter snowmobile using technologies and innovative methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Further, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. A number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. This paper provides details of the snowmobile development the results of these efforts on performance and emissions. Specifically, the Kettering University snowmobile achieved reductions of approximately 72% in CO, and 98% in HC+NOx when compared with the 2012 standard. Further, the snowmobile achieved a drive by noise level of 73 dbA while operating on hard packed snow.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Multiple Spark Discharge on the Cold-Startability of an E85 Fueled Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0609
This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the effect of multiple spark discharge ignition systems and spark plug electrode design on cold start performance of a dedicated E85 fueled vehicle. Tests were conducted using three different ignition configurations: OEM ignition and spark plugs, multiple spark discharge ignition with OEM spark plugs, and multiple spark discharge ignition with large gap circular electrode spark plugs. The multiple spark discharge ignition with OEM spark plugs showed a significant improvement in cold start performance over the OEM ignition, but the addition of the circular electrode spark plugs caused a decrease in cold start performance. The circular ground spark plugs did produce a higher ending coolant temperature than either of the other configurations.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Predictions of Methanol Combustion in a High-Compression DI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3133
Numerical simulations of lean Methanol combustion in a four-stroke internal combustion engine were conducted on a high-compression ratio engine. The engine had a removable integral injector ignition source insert that allowed changing the head dome volume, and the location of the spark plug relative to the fuel injector. It had two intake valves and two exhaust ports. The intake ports were designed so the airflow into the engine exhibited no tumble or swirl motions in the cylinder. Three different engine configurations were considered: One configuration had a flat head and piston, and the other two had a hemispherical combustion chamber in the cylinder head and a hemispherical bowl in the piston, with different volumes. The relative equivalence ratio (Lambda), injection timing and ignition timing were varied to determine the operating range for each configuration. Lambda (λ) values from 1.5 to 2.75 were considered.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Computationally - Based Study of Windshield Heat Transfer Subject to Impinging Airflow

2004-03-08
2004-01-1382
Impinging jets are an established technique for obtaining high local heat transfer coefficients between a fluid and a surface. Factors such as jet attachment, surface angle, jet angle, separation distance between jet orifice and surface of impingement, and trajectory influence heat transfer dramatically. In the current study, the specific application of interest is air issuing from the defroster's nozzles of a vehicle and impinging on a glass windshield. The current work is aimed at studying the flow patterns off a vehicle windshield as a result of air issuing from various nozzle configurations. The effects of openings' geometry (circular vs rectangular), number of openings, angle that the windshield makes with the horizontal plane and angle of impinging jet, on windshield heat transfer is examined. An optimal configuration will be recommended for better heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of A Methanol Fueled Directly-Injected Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2702
A numerical study on the combustion of Methanol in a directly injected (DI) engine was conducted. The study considers the effect of the bowl-in-piston (BIP) geometry, swirl ratio (SR), and relative equivalence ratio (λ), on flame propagation and burn rate of Methanol in a 4-stroke engine. Ignition-assist in this engine was accomplished by a spark plug system. Numerical simulations of two different BIP geometries were considered. Combustion characteristics of Methanol under swirl and no-swirl conditions were investigated. In addition, the amount of injected fuel was varied in order to determine the effect of stoichiometry on combustion. Only the compression and expansion strokes were simulated. The results show that fuel-air mixing, combustion, and flame propagation was significantly enhanced when swirl was turned on. This resulted in a higher peak pressure in the cylinder, and more heat loss through the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Clean Snowmobile for the 2004 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2004-09-27
2004-32-0074
Kettering University's Clean Snowmobile Challenge student design team has developed a new robust and innovative snowmobile for the 2004 competition. Switching from the previous years four-stroke automotive engine, Kettering University has utilized a modified snowmobile in-line four cylinder, four-stroke, fuel- injected engine. This engine has been installed into a 2003 Yamaha RX-1 snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions have been minimized through the use of a customized catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system. A newly designed and tuned exhaust as well as several chassis treatments have aided in minimizing noise emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Combustion in a Pre-chamber and Main Chamber

2004-10-25
2004-01-2968
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of a diesel-fueled engine with a pre-chamber located in the cylinder head and a bowl in the piston were performed. The study considers the effect of diesel combustion in the pre-chamber on turbulence generation and hence fuel-air mixing and combustion in the piston-bowl. Diesel fuel was injected directly into the pre-chamber and the piston bowl at different times. In order to better determine the effect of pre-chamber combustion on the main chamber combustion, various pre-chamber injection timings were considered. The results show that pre-chamber combustion caused the average cylinder pressure to increase by up to 20% in some cases.
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