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Technical Paper

Investigation of Joint Torque Characteristics for a Mechanical Counter - Pressure Spacesuit

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) spacesuit designs have been a promising, but elusive alternative to historical and current gas pressurized spacesuit technology since the Apollo program. One of the important potential advantages of the approach is enhanced mobility as a result of reduced bulk and joint torques, but the literature provides essentially no quantitative joint torque data or quantitative analytical support. Decisions on the value of investment in MCP technology and on the direction of technology development are hampered by this lack of information since the perceived mobility advantages are an important factor. An experimental study of a simple mechanical counter-pressure suit (elbow) hinge joint has been performed to provide some test data and analytical background on this issue to support future evaluation of the technology potential and future development efforts.
Technical Paper

Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

Physical Validation Testing of a Smart Tire Prototype for Estimation of Tire Forces

The safety of ground vehicles is a matter of critical importance. Vehicle safety is enhanced with the use of control systems that mitigate the effect of unachievable demands from the driver, especially demands for tire forces that cannot be developed. This paper presents the results of a smart tire prototyping and validation study, which is an investigation of a smart tire system that can be used as part of these mitigation efforts. The smart tire can monitor itself using in-tire sensors and provide information regarding its own tire forces and moments, which can be transmitted to a vehicle control system for improved safety. The smart tire is designed to estimate the three orthogonal tire forces and the tire aligning moment at least once per wheel revolution during all modes of vehicle operation, with high accuracy. The prototype includes two in-tire piezoelectric deformation sensors and a rotary encoder.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for the 2005 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

Kettering University's Clean Snowmobile Challenge student design team has developed a new robust and innovative snowmobile for the 2005 competition. This snowmobile dramatically reduces exhaust and noise emissions and improves fuel economy compared with a conventional snowmobile. Kettering University has utilized a modified snowmobile in-line four cylinder, four-stroke, engine. The team added an electronically-controlled fuel-injection system with oxygen sensor feedback to this engine. This engine has been installed into a 2003 Yamaha RX-1 snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions have been further minimized through the use of a customized catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system. A newly designed and tuned exhaust as well as several chassis treatments have aided in minimizing noise emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Chassis Design Factors (CDF) on the Ride Quality Using a Seven Degree of Freedom Vehicle Model

The kinematics and kinetics of a seven degree of freedom vehicle ride model with independent front and rear suspension are developed. Lagrange's equation is used to obtain the mathematical model of the vehicle. The equations of motion are transformed to state space equations in Linear Time Invariant (LTI) form. The effect of Chassis Design Factors (CDF) such as stabilizer bars, stiffness', Dynamic Index in Pitch (DIP) and mass ratio on the vehicle ride quality are investigated. The ride quality of the 3 dimensional vehicle that includes bounce, pitch, roll and unsprung masses motion is demonstrated in time domain response. The vehicle is considered as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output System (MIMO) subjected to deterministic ground inputs. Outputs of interest for the ride quality investigation are vertical and angular displacement and vertical accelerations. Numerical computer simulation analysis is performed using MATLAB® software.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Frontal Impact of a Formula SAE Vehicle

The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center. Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video.
Technical Paper

Verification and Validation of a Safety-Critical Steer-By-Wire System Using DO-178B

The application of DO-178B for the verification and validation of the safety-critical aspects of a steer-by-wire sub-system of a vehicle by using a spiral development model is discussed. The project was performed within a capstone design course at Kettering University. Issues including lessons learned regarding requirements, specifications, testing, verification, and validation activities as required by DO-178B are summarized.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Trailer Rear Impact Guard - Interdependence of Guard Strength, Energy Absorption, Occupant Acceleration Forces and Passenger Compartment Intrusion

FMVSS 223 and 224 set standards for “Rear Impact Protection” for trailers and semi-trailers with a gross weight rating greater than 10000 pounds. A limited amount of experimental data is available for evaluating the different performance attributes of rear impact guards. The crash tests are usually limited to fixed parameters such as impact speed, guard height, strength and energy absorption, etc. There also seems to be some misunderstanding of the interdependence of guard strength and energy absorption, and their combined effect on the guard's ability to limit underride while keeping occupant acceleration forces in a safe range. In this paper, we validated the Finite Element (FE) model of an existing rear impact guard against actual FMVSS 223 tests. We also modified a previously evaluated FE model of a 1990 Ford Taurus by updating its hood geometry and material properties.
Technical Paper

State Space Formulation by Bond Graph Models for Vehicle System Dynamics

Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol for the 2008 Clean Snowmobile Challenge

Clean snowmobile technology has been developed using methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Additionally, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. Finally, a number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. The results of these efforts include emissions reductions of 94% when compared with snowmobiles operating at the 2012 U.S. Federal requirements.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for a Safety-Critical Steer-by-Wire System

A hardware and software architecture suitable for a safety-critical steer-by-wire systems is presented. The architecture supports three major failure modes and features several safety protocols and mechanisms. Failures due to component failures, software errors, and human errors are handled by the architecture and safety protocols. A test implementation using replicated communication channels, controllers, sensors, and actuators has been performed. The test implementation uses the CAN protocol, Motorola S12 microcontrollers, and Microchip MCP250XX components with a steering wheel and road wheel simulator. The focus of the paper is on the application level, using system engineering principles which incorporate a holistic approach to achieve safety at various levels.
Technical Paper

Towards A Definition of A Test Methodology for Rollover Resistance and Rollover Performance

A variety of test methodologies currently exist to assess the propensity of a vehicle to roll laterally, the vehicle performance during a rollover event, and the associated risk of injury to the occupant. There are indications as to which tests are appropriate when attempting to replicate rollover events observed in the field. Due to the complexity of a rollover, test repeatability is a concern as well as cost, and field relevance. Since revisions to governmental rollover regulations are currently being considered, an assessment of currently available rollover test methodologies would provide a context to compare the different experimental designs. Additionally, the design of injury prevention strategies such as side air curtains, 4-point belts, etc. will also require the establishment of repeatable, robust, and economical test methods.
Technical Paper

Kettering University's 2003 Design for the Clean Snowmobile Challenge

Kettering University's entry in the 2003 Clean Snowmobile Challenge entails the installation of a fuel injected four-stroke engine into a conventional snowmobile chassis. Exhaust emissions are minimized through the use of a catalytic converter and an electronically controlled closed-loop fuel injection system, which also maximizes fuel economy. Noise emissions are minimized by the use of a specifically designed engine silencing system and several chassis treatments. Emissions tests run during the SAE collegiate design event revealed that a snowmobile designed by Kettering University produces lower unburned hydrocarbon (1.5 to 7 times less), carbon monoxide (1.5 to 7 times less), and oxides of nitrogen (and 5 to 23 times less) levels than the average automobile driven in Yellowstone National Park. The Kettering University entry also boasted acceleration performance better than the late-model 500 cc two-stroke snowmobile used as a control snowmobile in the Clean Snowmobile testing.
Technical Paper

Application of Bond Graph Technique and Computer Simulation to the Design of Passenger Car Steering System

Vehicle Dynamics play an important role in responsiveness of a vehicle. The performance of a vehicle depends on its ride and handling characteristics [1]. Handling is a measure of the directional response of a vehicle and one of the important characteristics from the vehicle dynamics point of view. The directional response of a vehicle depends on the dynamics of the steering system. A good steering control provides an accurate feedback about how the vehicle reacts to the road. In this paper, the powerful techniques of Bond graphs and state equations [2] are used to design and analyze the dynamics of a manual rack and pinion steering system. The author obtains the transfer function between the Angle of rotation of front tire and the Angle of rotation of steering wheel. The overall steering ratio of the bond graph modeled steering system is compared with the overall ratio of a similar vehicle to validate the model.
Technical Paper

Development of Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol

Kettering University has developed a cleaner and quieter snowmobile using technologies and innovative methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Further, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. A number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. This paper provides details of the snowmobile development the results of these efforts on performance and emissions. Specifically, the Kettering University snowmobile achieved reductions of approximately 72% in CO, and 98% in HC+NOx when compared with the 2012 standard. Further, the snowmobile achieved a drive by noise level of 73 dbA while operating on hard packed snow.

Carriages Without Horses

In September 1893, little could 23-year-old mechanic J. Frank Duryea dream of the changes that would be brought about by his creation -- a frail gasoline buggy that made its debut on the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts. Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea, two brothers from rural Illinois, were the founders of the American automobile industry. The Duryea Motor Wagon company was the first company organized in the United States for the manufacture of automobiles. The attention-getting, older brother Charles demanded - and to date has received - the principal credit for these pioneering accomplishments. A bitter family feud between the brothers, which was even carried on by their families after their deaths, further muddied the question about the individual brothers' contributions. However, in Carriages Without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the American Automobile Industry, historian and author Richard P. Scharchburg proves that the quiet, self-effacing younger brother J.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for the 2006 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

Kettering University's entry for the 2006 Clean Snowmobile challenge utilizes a Polaris FST Switchback. This snowmobile having a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on ethanol (E-85). The student team has designed and built a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters to minimize engine out emissions. A number of improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise.
Technical Paper

Traction and Clutch Effects on the Natural Frequency and Vibration Stability of Limited Slip Differential Axles

The torsional natural frequencies of axles equipped with limited slip differential clutches depend on whether or not the tires and clutches are slipping since the effective inertia at each end of the axle is different for slipping and non-slipping conditions. Limited slip axle vibrations are typically analyzed for one tire slipping and the other not since that is the case for which the limited slip clutches are used. Vibrations often arise, however, during normal turning when both drive tires have good traction.