Refine Your Search


Search Results

Viewing 1 to 17 of 17
Technical Paper

High Speed Measurement of Contact Pressure and Area during Knee-to-Instrument Panel Impact Events Suffered from Frontal Crashes

Numerous human cadaver impact studies have shown that acute injury to the knee, femoral shaft, and hip may be significantly reduced by increasing the contact area over the anterior surface of the knee. Such impact events are common in frontal crashes when the knee strikes the instrument panel (IP). The cadaveric studies show that the injury threshold of the knee-thigh-hip complex increases as the contact area over the knee is likewise increased. Unfortunately, no prior methodology exists to record the spatial and temporal contact pressure distributions in dummy (or cadaver) experiments. Previous efforts have been limited to the use of pressure sensitive film, which only yields a cumulative record of contact. These studies assumed that the cumulative pressure sensitive film image correlated with the peak load, although this has never been validated.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Measurement and Analysis of Head-To- B-Pillar Contact Pressure and Area Response

Government accident statistics show that approximately 35% of all car accident victims suffer an injury to the head and face. Such injuries are common during frontal, side, and rollover accidents as the head may impact the steering wheel, side pillars, windshield, or roof. Further, non-threatening injuries (i.e abrasions) may be suffered due to contact with the deployed airbag, or, in the case of an out-of-position occupant, a deploying airbag. While the forces and accelerations measured internal to the head are known to correlate with serious head injury (i.e. concussion, skull fracture, diffuse axonal injury), it is currently not possible to record how the loads are distributed over the head and face with the current ATD. Ultimately, such data could eventually be used to provide improved resolution as to the probability of superficial, soft tissue damage since past cadaver studies show that the distribution of contact pressures are related to such injuries.
Technical Paper

Effect of Head and Neck Anthropometry on the Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Prepubescent Children

Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation.
Technical Paper

Blind-Spot Detection and Avoidance Utilizing In-Vehicle Haptic Feedback Force Feedback

Steer-by-wire is a system where there are no mechanical connections between the steering wheel and the tires. With the inception of electric and hybrid cars, steer-by-wire is becoming more common. A steer-by-wire car opens many opportunities for additional feedback on the steering wheel. Providing haptic feedback through the steering wheel will add additional depth and capabilities to make the driving experience safer. In this paper we investigated the effects of force feedback on the steering wheel in order to detect and/or avoid blind spot collisions. Two types of force feedback are examined using a driving simulator: a rumble and a counter steering force. A rumble on the steering wheel can avoid blind-spot accidents by providing feedback to drivers about vehicles in their blind spots. Providing counter steering force feedback can help in the reduction in blind-spot accidents. The results show that adding counter steering force feedback did reduce blind-spot related collisions.
Technical Paper

Injury Sources for Second Row Occupants in Frontal Crashes Considering Age and Restraint Condition Influence

The current study examined field data in order to document injury rates, injured body regions, and injury sources for persons seated in the second row of passenger vehicles. It was also intended to identify whether these varied with respect to age and restraint use in vehicles manufactured in recent years. Data from the 2007-2012 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS/CDS) was used to describe occupants seated in the second row of vehicles in frontal crashes. Injury plots, comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were used to seek factors associated with increased risk of injury. Restraint use reduced the risk of AIS ≥ 2 injury from approximately 1.8% to 5.8% overall. Seventy nine percent of the occupants in the weighted data set used either a lap and shoulder belt or child restraint system. The most frequently indicated injury source for persons with a MAIS ≥ 2 was “seat, back support”, across restraint conditions and for all but the youngest occupants.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Frontal Impact of a Formula SAE Vehicle

The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center. Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video.
Technical Paper

Cervical Range of Motion Data in Children

The “Range-of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Children” study is a collaboration between Kettering University and McLaren Regional Medical Center in Flint, Michigan to quantify and establish benchmarks of “normal” range of motion (ROM) in children. The results will be analyzed to determine mean and standard deviation of degrees of rotation and used to improve the occupant protection in motor vehicles, sports equipment and benefits of physical therapy. The data will be invaluable in the development of computational models to analyze processes involving children in motion.
Technical Paper

External Knee Geometry Surface Variation as a Function of Subject Anthropometry and Flexion Angle for Human and Surrogate Subjects

The current study was designed to compare the surface anatomy of the knee for different human subject anthropometries using a 3-D, non-contact digitizer which converted the anatomy into point clouds. The subjects were studied at flexion angles of 60, 90, and 120 degrees. Multiple subjects fitting narrow anthropometrical specifications were studied: 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male. These data were then compared to a corresponding anthropometrical crash dummy knee which served as an unambiguous control. Intersubject human comparisons showed surface geometry variations which were an order of magnitude smaller than comparisons between the human and dummy knee. Large errors between the human and dummy were associated with the muscle bulk proximal and distal to the popliteal region and the rounder shape of the human knee.
Technical Paper

Verification and Validation of a Safety-Critical Steer-By-Wire System Using DO-178B

The application of DO-178B for the verification and validation of the safety-critical aspects of a steer-by-wire sub-system of a vehicle by using a spiral development model is discussed. The project was performed within a capstone design course at Kettering University. Issues including lessons learned regarding requirements, specifications, testing, verification, and validation activities as required by DO-178B are summarized.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for a Safety-Critical Steer-by-Wire System

A hardware and software architecture suitable for a safety-critical steer-by-wire systems is presented. The architecture supports three major failure modes and features several safety protocols and mechanisms. Failures due to component failures, software errors, and human errors are handled by the architecture and safety protocols. A test implementation using replicated communication channels, controllers, sensors, and actuators has been performed. The test implementation uses the CAN protocol, Motorola S12 microcontrollers, and Microchip MCP250XX components with a steering wheel and road wheel simulator. The focus of the paper is on the application level, using system engineering principles which incorporate a holistic approach to achieve safety at various levels.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rollover Injuries for 125 Occupants at a Single Trauma Center With Special Focus on Head and Neck Injury

Analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) data reveals that vehicle rollover accidents account for a relatively a small number of accidents, but the associated frequency of serious injury is high compared to frontal or side impact. These data demonstrate the apparently elevated probability of head and neck injury during rollover, with head injury occurring more frequently, injured 4.5 times more frequently than the neck when considering all injuries. Automotive industry researchers have performed numerous rollover tests with instrumented ATD's and have predicted an elevated probability of neck injury with little chance of head injury. This contradicts field data (NASS-CDS) which suggests a high frequency of head injury with little chance of neck injury. This difference may be explained in part, through the different volumes of data presented in the literature.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Rollover Simulation

Rollover crashes are responsible for a significant proportion of traffic fatalities each year, while they represent a relatively small proportion of all motor vehicle collisions. The purpose of this study was to focus on rollover events from an occupant's perspective to understand what type of industry test method, ATD, computer based model, and injury assessment measures are required to provide occupant protection during rollovers. Specific injuries most commonly experienced in rollovers along with the associated injury sources were obtained by review of 1998-2000 NASS-CDS records. These data suggest that models capable of predicting the likelihood of brain injuries, specifically subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage, are desirable. Ideally, the model should also be capable of predicting the likelihood of rib fractures, lung contusions and shoulder (clavicular and scapular) fractures, and facet, pedicle, and vertebral body fractures in the cervical spine.
Technical Paper

Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.

Carriages Without Horses

In September 1893, little could 23-year-old mechanic J. Frank Duryea dream of the changes that would be brought about by his creation -- a frail gasoline buggy that made its debut on the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts. Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea, two brothers from rural Illinois, were the founders of the American automobile industry. The Duryea Motor Wagon company was the first company organized in the United States for the manufacture of automobiles. The attention-getting, older brother Charles demanded - and to date has received - the principal credit for these pioneering accomplishments. A bitter family feud between the brothers, which was even carried on by their families after their deaths, further muddied the question about the individual brothers' contributions. However, in Carriages Without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the American Automobile Industry, historian and author Richard P. Scharchburg proves that the quiet, self-effacing younger brother J.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study of Perceived Vibration Quality for Human Hands

A large body of knowledge exists regarding the effects of vibration on human beings; however, the emphasis is generally on the damaging effects of vibration. Very little information has been published regarding the effect of vibration on perceived consumer product quality. The perceived loudness of a product is quantified using the Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves, but the equivalent curves for perceived vibration amplitude as a function of amplitude and frequency are not readily available. This “vibration quality” information would be valuable in the design and evaluation of many consumer products, including automobiles. Vibration information is used in the automobile design process where targets for steering wheel, seat track, and pedal vibration are common. For this purpose, the vibration information is considered proprietary and is generally applicable to a narrow frequency range. In this investigation, work paralleling the original Fletcher-Munson study is presented.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.