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Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump with Enhanced Cold Start Priming

2001-04-30
2001-01-1422
The objective of the present work was to improve the cold start NVH performance of an automotive power steering pump under low temperature conditions. This objective was accomplished through the use experimental study and measurement. The satisfactory operation of a fixed displacement vane pump in cold temperatures depends on a number of factors including; (1) filling characteristics, (2) the inlet conditions to the pump, (3) the fluid, and (4) the ability of the vanes to maintain contact with the cam surface. In this investigation, factor (4) was chosen for investigation. A unique outlet orifice was designed and tested at three different operating ambient temperatures, -19 °C, -29 °C, and -40 °C. Maximum “noise” duration was measured as the maximum duration of fluid borne pump outlet pressure oscillations greater the 345 kPa peak-to-peak. The results show that noise duration can reduced by as much as 50% at -40 °C.
Technical Paper

R134A Suction Line Heat Exchanger in Different Configurations of Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1694
A suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) transfers heat from the condenser outlet to the suction gas. In a TXV (thermostatic expansion valve) system, the performance improvement with a 60 to 80 % effective SLHX is expected to be on the order of 8 to 10 % for capacity, and 5 to 7 % for COP for high outdoor air temperatures of 43ºC. In a FOT (fixed orifice tube) system, the performance improvement was calculated to be about 10 to 15 %. The calculated improvements have been verified experimentally within a few percent.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Flow Noise Prediction Models

2001-04-30
2001-01-1498
Flow noise from automotive HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems is one of the major considerations of occupant comfort. The noise generated at high blower speed is a major contributor to the vehicle interior noise. This paper reviews automotive HVAC air rush noise prediction models for estimating register, buck (air handling subsystem) and vehicle noise levels. The vehicle noise prediction method correlates well with measured noise levels at driver right ear location: with a standard deviation of 1.31 dB where standard deviation is the difference between measured and predicted noise levels for a sample size of 10 vehicles.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Design Considerations for a Longitudinally Mounted Powertrain

2001-04-30
2001-01-1448
The transmission mount in a powertrain mounting system is often a primary path for noise. This is especially the case when the transmission is mounted directly to the body without the benefit of a structural frame or isolation between the bracket and body. Since most transmissions generate frequencies above 150Hz, the transmission mount system becomes a likely noise path for this and higher frequencies. A combination of very stiff transmission bracket and very soft rubber mount between the transmission bracket and the transmission would help this problem. In this paper the development an optimally designed transmission mount for a longitudinally mounted powertrain is presented. The development procedure of such a design considers the transmission mount as part of the total system.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

2001-05-14
2001-01-1760
The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

High Speed Measurement of Contact Pressure and Area during Knee-to-Instrument Panel Impact Events Suffered from Frontal Crashes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0174
Numerous human cadaver impact studies have shown that acute injury to the knee, femoral shaft, and hip may be significantly reduced by increasing the contact area over the anterior surface of the knee. Such impact events are common in frontal crashes when the knee strikes the instrument panel (IP). The cadaveric studies show that the injury threshold of the knee-thigh-hip complex increases as the contact area over the knee is likewise increased. Unfortunately, no prior methodology exists to record the spatial and temporal contact pressure distributions in dummy (or cadaver) experiments. Previous efforts have been limited to the use of pressure sensitive film, which only yields a cumulative record of contact. These studies assumed that the cumulative pressure sensitive film image correlated with the peak load, although this has never been validated.
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0041
This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Measurement and Analysis of Head-To- B-Pillar Contact Pressure and Area Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-0718
Government accident statistics show that approximately 35% of all car accident victims suffer an injury to the head and face. Such injuries are common during frontal, side, and rollover accidents as the head may impact the steering wheel, side pillars, windshield, or roof. Further, non-threatening injuries (i.e abrasions) may be suffered due to contact with the deployed airbag, or, in the case of an out-of-position occupant, a deploying airbag. While the forces and accelerations measured internal to the head are known to correlate with serious head injury (i.e. concussion, skull fracture, diffuse axonal injury), it is currently not possible to record how the loads are distributed over the head and face with the current ATD. Ultimately, such data could eventually be used to provide improved resolution as to the probability of superficial, soft tissue damage since past cadaver studies show that the distribution of contact pressures are related to such injuries.
Technical Paper

Portable NVH Dynamometers

2003-05-05
2003-01-1682
Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics have become a key differentiator between “Good” vehicles and “Best-In-Class” vehicles. While all OEM's and most Tier 1 suppliers have on-site in-ground chassis dynamometers, a need was identified to design, develop and bring to market, a fully capable portable NVH full vehicle chassis system. The original concept entailed a device, which could be brought to the customer's location, be fully self contained, requiring no external power, and provide data acquisition using transducers that would not contact the vehicle. With traditional instrumentation taking several hours to install, non-contacting lasers would be used to provide significant timesaving, and prevent any possible damage to the vehicle from pinched wires. The new methodology should provide data acquisition in as little as 20 minutes. Analysis would be accomplished immediately following testing, with hard copies available before the next vehicle was ready to run.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Physical Validation Testing of a Smart Tire Prototype for Estimation of Tire Forces

2018-04-03
2018-01-1117
The safety of ground vehicles is a matter of critical importance. Vehicle safety is enhanced with the use of control systems that mitigate the effect of unachievable demands from the driver, especially demands for tire forces that cannot be developed. This paper presents the results of a smart tire prototyping and validation study, which is an investigation of a smart tire system that can be used as part of these mitigation efforts. The smart tire can monitor itself using in-tire sensors and provide information regarding its own tire forces and moments, which can be transmitted to a vehicle control system for improved safety. The smart tire is designed to estimate the three orthogonal tire forces and the tire aligning moment at least once per wheel revolution during all modes of vehicle operation, with high accuracy. The prototype includes two in-tire piezoelectric deformation sensors and a rotary encoder.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Airflow Induced Whistle Noise by HVAC Control Doors Utilizing a ‘V-Shape’ Rubber Seal

2011-05-17
2011-01-1615
Doors inside an automotive HVAC module are essential components to ensure occupant comfort by controlling the cabin temperature and directing the air flow. For temperature control, the function of a door is not only to close/block the airflow path via the door seal that presses against HVAC wall, but also control the amount of hot and cold airflow to maintain cabin temperature. To meet the stringent OEM sealing requirement while maintaining a cost-effective product, a “V-Shape” soft rubber seal is commonly used. However, in certain conditions when the door is in the position other than closed which creates a small gap, this “V-Shape” seal is susceptible to the generation of objectionable whistle noise for the vehicle passengers. This nuisance can easily reduce end-customer satisfaction to the overall HVAC performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Joint Torque Characteristics for a Mechanical Counter - Pressure Spacesuit

2009-07-12
2009-01-2536
Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) spacesuit designs have been a promising, but elusive alternative to historical and current gas pressurized spacesuit technology since the Apollo program. One of the important potential advantages of the approach is enhanced mobility as a result of reduced bulk and joint torques, but the literature provides essentially no quantitative joint torque data or quantitative analytical support. Decisions on the value of investment in MCP technology and on the direction of technology development are hampered by this lack of information since the perceived mobility advantages are an important factor. An experimental study of a simple mechanical counter-pressure suit (elbow) hinge joint has been performed to provide some test data and analytical background on this issue to support future evaluation of the technology potential and future development efforts.
Technical Paper

Development of the Kettering University Snowmobile for the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge

2009-11-03
2009-32-0177
Affordable clean snowmobile technology has been developed. The goals of this design included reducing exhaust emissions to levels which are below the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 standard. Additionally, noise levels were to be reduced to below the noise mandates of 78 dB(A). Further, this snowmobile can operate using any blend of gasoline and ethanol from E0 to E85. Finally, achieving these goals would be a hollow victory if the cost and performance of the snowmobile were severely compromised. Snowmobiling is, after all, a recreational sport; thus the snowmobile must remain fun to drive and cost effective to produce. The details of this design effort including performance data are discussed in this paper. Specifically, the effort to modify a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine is described. This snowmobile was modified to run on a range of ethanol blended fuels using a closed-loop engine control system.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

International Product User Research: Concurrent Studies Comparing Touch Screen Feedback in Europe and North America

2009-04-20
2009-01-0779
This paper describes two studies; each conducted concurrently in North America and Europe to assess subjective impressions and simulated driving task performance using a touch screen interface with different types of auditory and haptic feedback. The first study investigated subjective impressions of four types of touch screen feedback in a static laboratory setting. The second study investigated the influence of the same four touch screen feedback types on simulated driving task performance using the lane change test (LCT). Results of the first study revealed significant similarities and differences in subjective impressions between respondents in each of the two regions studied. Results of the second study revealed differences in task performance that suggest distinct participant strategies in each of the two regions studied.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Lean Principles in Supply Chain Management for the Automotive Aftermarket

2009-04-20
2009-01-0263
The automotive aftermarket represents a challenge for supply chain management when compared to traditional practices in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) supply chain. This paper presents a case study for a Tier One automotive supplier’s challenges with inventory carrying costs, backorder risk, and supplier relationships for a rear seat entertainment system in the automotive aftermarket. It will also address the lean principles used to improve the business and increase material planning analyst productivity. A call for OEMs to examine their business practices is also included.
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