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Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0428
Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure of Rollers in Crankshaft Fillet Rolling

2004-03-08
2004-01-1498
In this paper, the fatigue failure of the primary roller used in a crankshaft fillet rolling process is investigated by a failure analysis and a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first discussed to introduce the important parameters that influence the fatigue life of the primary roller. The cross sections of failed primary rollers are then examined by an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to understand the microscopic characteristics of the fatigue failure process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is employed to qualitatively investigate the influences of the contact geometry on the contact pressure distribution and the Mises stress distribution near the contact area. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are then estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory.
Technical Paper

Failure of Laser Welds in Aluminum Sheets

2001-03-05
2001-01-0091
In this paper, the formability of AA5754 aluminum laser-welded blanks produced by Nd:YAG laser welding is investigated under biaxial straining conditions. The mechanical behavior of the laser-welded blanks is first examined by uniaxial tensile tests conducted with the weld line perpendicular to the tensile axis. Shear failure in the weld metal is observed in the experiments. Finite element simulations under generalized plane strain conditions are then conducted in order to further understand the effects of weld geometry and strength on the shear failure and formability of these welded blanks. The strain histories of the material elements in the weld metal obtained from finite element computations are finally used in a theoretical failure analysis based on the material imperfection approach to predict the failure strains for the laser-welded blanks under biaxial straining conditions.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Spot Welds Under Complex Combined Loading Conditions for Crash Applications

2002-07-09
2002-01-2032
Experiments to obtain the failure loads of spot welds are first reviewed under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A failure criterion is then presented for spot welds under combined opening and shear loading conditions based on the results from the experiments and a lower bound limit load analysis. In order to account for spot welds under more complex loading conditions, another lower bound limit load solution is presented to characterize the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms of Sandwich Specimens With Epoxy Foam Cores Under Bending Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0327
Sandwich specimens with DP590 steel face sheets and structural epoxy foam cores are investigated under three-point bending conditions. Experimental results indicate that the maximum loads correspond to extensive cracking in the foam cores. Finite element simulations of the bending tests are also performed to understand the failure mechanisms of the epoxy foams. In these simulations, the plastic behavior of the steel face sheets is modeled by the Mises yield criterion with consideration of plastic strain hardening. A pressure sensitive yield criterion is used to model the plastic behavior of the epoxy foam cores. The epoxy foams are idealized to follow an elastic perfectly plastic behavior. The simulation results indicate that the load-displacement responses of some sandwich specimens agree with the experimental results.
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