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Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0428
Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shear Loads on Crush of Honeycomb Materials

2002-03-04
2002-01-0683
We conduct static experiments to investigate the influence of shear stress on the crush behavior of honeycomb materials. The aluminum honeycomb materials selected in this investigation are orthotropic due to their manufacturing processes. A test fixture and honeycomb specimens are designed such that combined compressive and shear loads along the strongest material symmetry axis can be controlled and applied accurately. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the rupture of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Spot Welds Under Complex Combined Loading Conditions for Crash Applications

2002-07-09
2002-01-2032
Experiments to obtain the failure loads of spot welds are first reviewed under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A failure criterion is then presented for spot welds under combined opening and shear loading conditions based on the results from the experiments and a lower bound limit load analysis. In order to account for spot welds under more complex loading conditions, another lower bound limit load solution is presented to characterize the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads.
Technical Paper

A General Failure Criterion for Spot Welds with Consideration of Plastic Anisotropy and Separation Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0611
A general failure criterion for spot welds is proposed with consideration of the plastic anisotropy and the separation speed for crash applications. A lower bound limit load analysis is conducted to account for the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution and the experimental results, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the plastic anisotropy, separation speed, sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads. Spot weld failure loads under uniaxial and biaxial opening loads and those under combined shear and twisting loads from experiments are shown to be characterized well by the engineering failure criterion.
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