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Technical Paper

1.9-Liter Four-Cylinder HCCI Engine Operation with Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2001-05-07
2001-01-1894
We present the effect of EGR, at a set fuel flow rate and intake temperature, on the operating parameters of timing of combustion, duration of combustion, power output, thermal efficiency, and NOx emission; which is remarkably low. We find that addition of EGR at constant inlet temperature and constant fuel flow rate has little effect on HCCI parameter of start of combustion (SOC). However, burn duration is highly dependent on the amount of EGR inducted. The experimental setup at UC Berkeley uses a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.8:1 (offered on a 1995 VW Passat TDI). The engine was converted to run in HCCI mode by addition of an 18kW air pre-heater installed in the intake system. Pressure traces were obtained using four water-cooled quartz pressure transducers, which replaced the Diesel fuel injectors. Gaseous fuel (propane or butane) flowed steadily into the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

2001-05-14
2001-01-2077
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOx emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Equivalence Ratio-EGR Control of HCCI Engine Operation and the Potential for Transition to Spark-Ignited Operation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3613
This research investigates a control system for HCCI engines, where equivalence ratio, fraction of EGR and intake pressure are adjusted as needed to obtain satisfactory combustion. HCCI engine operation is analyzed with a detailed chemical kinetics code, HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport), that has been extensively modified for application to engines. HCT is linked to an optimizer that determines the operating conditions that result in maximum brake thermal efficiency, while meeting the peak cylinder pressure restriction. The results show the values of the operating conditions that yield optimum efficiency as a function of torque and rpm. The engine has high NOx emissions for high power operation, so the possibility of switching to stoichiometric operation for high torque conditions is considered. Stoichiometric operation would allow the use of a three-way catalyst to reduce NOx emissions to acceptable levels.
Technical Paper

A Decoupled Model of Detailed Fluid Mechanics Followed by Detailed Chemical Kinetics for Prediction of Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion

2001-09-24
2001-01-3612
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. The methodology judiciously uses a fluid mechanics code followed by a chemical kinetics code to achieve great reduction in the computational requirements; to a level that can be handled with current computers. In previous papers, our sequential, multi-zone methodology has been applied to HCCI combustion of short-chain hydrocarbons (natural gas and propane). Applying the same procedure to long-chain hydrocarbons (iso-octane) results in unacceptably long computational time. In this paper, we show how the computational time can be made acceptable by developing a segregated solver. This reduces the run time of a ten-zone problem by an order of magnitude and thus makes it much more practical to make combustion studies of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Pushing the Envelope to Near-Zero Emissions on Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3840
The integration of advanced emission control technologies including advanced three-way catalysts and advanced, high cell density, ultra-thin wall substrates with advanced gasoline powertrains and advanced engine controls is necessary to achieve near-zero tailpipe emission requirements like California's SULEV or PZEV light-duty certification categories. The first gasoline vehicles meeting these near-zero regulations have been introduced in California in 2001. Advanced three-way catalysts targeted for these near-zero regulations feature layered architectures, thermally stable oxygen storage components, and segregated precious metal impregnation strategies. Engine calibration strategies focused on tight stoichiometric air/fuel control and fast catalyst heat-up immediately after engine start are important enablers to achieve near-zero hydrocarbon and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

2002-10-21
2002-01-2889
Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

2002-10-21
2002-01-2873
A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

2002-10-21
2002-01-2869
A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results.
Technical Paper

A Computer Generated Reduced Iso-Octane Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Applied to Simulation of HCCI Combustion

2002-10-21
2002-01-2870
This paper shows how a computer can systematically remove non-essential chemical reactions from a large chemical kinetic mechanism. The computer removes the reactions based upon a single solution using a detailed mechanism. The resulting reduced chemical mechanism produces similar numerical predictions significantly faster than predictions that use the detailed mechanism. Specifically, a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for iso-octane has been derived from a detailed mechanism by eliminating unimportant reaction steps and species. The reduced mechanism has been developed for the specific purpose of fast and accurate prediction of ignition timing in an HCCI engine. The reduced mechanism contains 199 species and 383 reactions, while the detailed mechanism contains 859 species and 3606 reactions. Both mechanisms have been used in numerical simulation of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of Lean NOx Technology for Diesel Emission Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-0956
The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of Lean NOx technology for diesel emission control. In this work, the focus is on the precious metal (low temperature) catalyst. Engelhard optimized the catalyst for cells per square inch (cpsi) and Platinum loading. Effect of various parameters, including, reductant type, catalyst volume, space velocity range and injector locations were investigated both analytically and experimentally at Cummins in search for the optimum system design. Both steady state and transient tests were conducted in this work. The precious metal catalysts have a narrow temperature window, however, with the use of proper reductant and an efficient control strategy (to minimize fuel penalty) cycle conversion efficiencies as high as 40% may be obtained for FTP-75. The analysis tool developed to aid the system design is capable of predicting effects of catalyst temperature, NOx concentration, O2 concentration, space velocity etc. on NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Emissions Implications of a Twin Close Coupled Catalyst System Designed for Improved Engine Performance on an In-line 4 Cylinder Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1092
The emission capability of an exhaust system tuned for improved engine performance from an in-line four-cylinder engine has been investigated. The exhaust system comprises two close-coupled catalysts; each located in separate exhaust streams and has been termed the 4-2 close-coupled catalysts (CCC) -1 system. It has been shown that, given equivalent total catalyst volume, this system configuration results in compromised high exhaust flow rate emissions performance compared with a single catalyst (4-1semi-CCC) system. This emissions performance deficit has been attributed to the effect of engine frequency flow pulsations, which result in relatively high peak space velocities in the 4-2CCC-1 system despite the mean space velocity being consistent. Engine-based AFR Bias Sweep tests suggest that hydrocarbon emissions are most strongly affected by this phenomenon. At lower exhaust flow rates, the difference in performance between the two systems is negligible.
Technical Paper

Engine Dynamometer and Vehicle Performance of a Urea SCR-System for Heavy-Duty Truck Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0286
The application of SCR deNOx aftertreatment was studied on two about 12 liter class heavy-duty diesel engines within a consortium project. Basically, the system consists of a dosage system for aqueous urea injection and a vanadia based SCR catalyst, without an upstream or downstream oxidation catalyst. The urea injection system for a DAF and a Renault V.I. (Véhicules Industriels) diesel engine was calibrated on the engine test bench taking into account dynamic effects of the catalyst. For both engine applications NOx reduction was 81% to 84% over the ESC and 72% over the ETC. CO emission increased up to 27%. PM emission is reduced by 4 to 23% and HC emission is reduced by more than 80%. These results are achieved with standard diesel fuel with about 350 ppm sulfur. The test engines and SCR deNOx systems were built into a DAF FT95 truck and a Renault V.I. Magnum truck.
Technical Paper

Chemical Speciation of Exhaust Emissions from Trucks and Buses Fueled on Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and CNG

2002-03-04
2002-01-0432
A recently completed program was developed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different truck and bus fleets operating in Southern California. The primary test fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO, a BP company, and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. A test fleet comprised of heavy-duty trucks and buses were retrofitted with one of two types of catalyzed diesel particle filters, and operated for one year. As part of this program, a chemical characterization study was performed in the spring of 2001 to compare the exhaust emissions using the test fuels with and without aftertreatment. A detailed speciation of volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, carbonyls, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzo-p-furans (PCDF), inorganic ions, elements, PM10, and PM2.5 in diesel exhaust was performed for a select set of vehicles.
Technical Paper

DOE's Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag Through Joint Experiments and Computations

2005-11-01
2005-01-3511
At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the intelligent design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments related to drag reduction devices, and offer a brief discussion of our future direction.
Technical Paper

Computational Simulation of Tractor-Trailer Gap Flow with Drag-Reducing Aerodynamic Devices

2005-11-01
2005-01-3625
Computational simulations of the Modified Ground Transportation System1 (M-GTS), a 1/14th-scale simplified tractor-trailer geometry, are performed at both laboratory and full-scale Reynolds numbers using the NASA overset grid code OVERFLOW2. Steady Reynolds' Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are conducted to deepen the understanding of tractor-trailer gap flow structure, and to ascertain the time-averaged efficacy of tractor cab extenders and trailer-face splitter plates in reducing aerodynamic drag in typical crosswinds. Results of lab-scale simulations compare favorably to body force and particle image velocimetry (PIV) data obtained from University of Southern California (USC) experiments for two tractor-trailer gap lengths. Full-scale simulations highlight model geometry limitations and allude to the use of splitter plates in place of, or in conjunction with, tractor cab extenders.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3741
Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1328 species and 5835 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation.
Technical Paper

Spatial Analysis of Emissions Sources for HCCI Combustion at Low Loads Using a Multi-Zone Model

2004-06-08
2004-01-1910
We have conducted a detailed numerical analysis of HCCI engine operation at low loads to investigate the sources of HC and CO emissions and the associated combustion inefficiencies. Engine performance and emissions are evaluated as fueling is reduced from typical HCCI conditions, with an equivalence ratio ϕ = 0.26 to very low loads (ϕ = 0.04). Calculations are conducted using a segregated multi-zone methodology and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for iso-octane with 859 chemical species. The computational results agree very well with recent experimental results. Pressure traces, heat release rates, burn duration, combustion efficiency and emissions of hydrocarbon, oxygenated hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide are generally well predicted for the whole range of equivalence ratios. The computational model also shows where the pollutants originate within the combustion chamber, thereby explaining the changes in the HC and CO emissions as a function of equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

2001-03-05
2001-01-1027
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

Current Research in HCCI Combustion at UC Berkeley and LLNL

2001-08-20
2001-01-2511
This paper describes the Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. HCCI is an old combustion technology that may now be developed with expectations of high efficiency, low NOx, and low particulate matter emissions; in short, an alternative to diesel engines. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability.
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