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Technical Paper

Design of a Low Atmospheric Pressure Plant Growth Chamber

Little information exists on the responses of plants to environmental conditions which combine lower than Earth-normal atmospheric pressures with changes in the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Data collected on the growth of plants in such environments will be valuable in the development of low-pressure plant growth facilities for use on Space Station Freedom, the moon, and Mars. Such low pressure environments have been proposed previously as a means of facilitating EVA operations. Additionally, in some planetary base applications, the use of low atmospheric pressure would allow the use of lightweight plant growth structures for food production, thus reducing both the mass and the launch cost of the life support system.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle Operated on Alternative Fuels in Copenhagen

A new diesel van with a reference weight of 1661 kg and a pre-chamber engine with a displacement of 2400cc was tested on a chassis dynamometer. The fuel consumption and emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, particulate matter and associated organic material (SOF) as well as PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) were measured under different driving conditions. The driving patterns used were recorded with a chase car at real traffic conditions on several roads in Copenhagen. The emissions were measured using different kind of diesel fuels as well as RME and biodiesel. CO, CO2, HC, and NOx levels generally decreased with increasing average speed of the driving cycle for all fuels tested. Cold start emissions were generally higher than for warm start.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The objective of this research was to study the effects of a CCRT®, henceforth called Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter (DOC-CPF) system on particulate and gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) operated at Modes 11 and 9 of the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle Emissions characterized included: total particulate matter (TPM) and components of carbonaceous solids (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfates (SO4); vapor phase organics (XOC); gaseous emissions of total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2); and particle size distributions at normal dilution ratio (NDR) and higher dilution ratio (HDR). Significant reductions were observed for TPM and SOL (>90%), SOF (>80%) and XOC (>70%) across the DOC-CPF at both modes.
Technical Paper

Simulation of One-pass Dimethylether Production from Natural Gas for Potential Use in a NG/DME Dual-fuel CI Engine

A model process to produce dimethylether (DME) from natural gas (NG) was simulated in a one-pass mode (no material recycle), assuming steady-state and chemical and physical equilibrium. NG conversion to synthesis gas (syngas) via steam reforming resulted in stoichiometric numbers of 2.97 along with vapor mole fraction extremes for carbon dioxide, methane, and water. These concentrations formed an eight-trial simulation grid of syngas compositions. Simulation of DME production was performed in a dual reactor configuration with methanol formation as the intermediate compound. Solutions resulting from the subsequent adiabatic dehydration of the methanol-rich phase showed a consistent DME composition (88%). The resulting solutions and unreacted syngas streams from simulation were examined for applicability to a dual-fuel NG/DME CI engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter and Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The objective of this research was to study the effect of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) with a high loading of catalyst (50 gms/ft3) and ultra low sulfur fuel (ULSF -0.57 ppm of sulfur) on the emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine. The particulate emissions were measured using two different analytical methods, i.e., the gravimetric method and the thermal optical method (TOM). The results from the two different methods of analyses were compared. The experiments were performed at four different operating conditions chosen from the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle. A 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty engine with manually controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used to perform the emission characterization experiments. The emission characterization included total particulate matter (TPM), which is composed of the solids (SOL), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulfates (SO4) analyzed using the gravimetric method.
Journal Article

Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Assessment of Natural Gas Direct Injection compared to Gasoline and Natural Gas Port-Fuel Injection in an Automotive Engine

Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.