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An Experimental Analysis on Diesel/n-Butanol Blends Operating in Partial Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0014
Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0139
The automotive industry is striving to adopt model-based engine design and optimization procedures to reduce development time and costs. In this scenario, first-principles gas dynamic models predicting the mass, energy and momentum transport in the engine air path system with high accuracy and low computation effort are extremely important today for performance prediction, optimization and cylinder charge estimation and control. This paper presents a comparative study of two different modeling approaches to predict the one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow in the engine air path system. The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Journal Article

The Lotus Range Extender Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2208
The paper discusses the concept, specification and performance of a new, dedicated range extender engine for plug-in series hybrid vehicles conceived and designed by Lotus Engineering. This has been undertaken as part of a consortium project called Limo Green, part-funded by the UK government. The Lotus Range Extender engine has been conceived from the outset specifically as an engine for a plug-in series hybrid vehicle, therefore being free of some of the constraints placed on engines which have to mate to conventional, stepped mechanical transmissions. The paper starts by defining the philosophical difference between an engine for range extension and an engine for a full series hybrid vehicle, a distinction which is important with regard to how much power each type must produce. As part of this, the advantages of the sparkignition engine over the diesel are outlined.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of Soot and De-NOx Reaction Phenomena in SCRF Systems

2011-06-09
2011-37-0031
The development of thermally durable zeolite NH3/Urea-SCR formulations coupled with that of high porosity filters substrates has opened the way to integrate PM and NOx control into a single device, namely an SCR-coated Diesel Particulate Filter (SCRF). A few experimental works are already present in the literature regarding SCRF systems, mainly addressing the DeNOx performances of the system (in both presence and absence of soot) under both steady state and transient conditions. The purpose of the present work is to perform a simulation study focused on phenomena which are expected to play key roles in SCRF systems, such as coupling of reaction and diffusion phenomena, soot effect on DeNOx activity, SCR coating effect on soot regeneration and filtration efficiency and competition between soot oxidation and DeNOx processes involving NO2.
Journal Article

Project Omnivore: A Variable Compression Ratio ATAC 2-Stroke Engine for Ultra-Wide-Range HCCI Operation on a Variety of Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-1249
The paper describes the principal features of Omnivore, a spark-ignition-based research engine designed to investigate the possibility of true wide-range HCCI operation on a variety of fossil and renewable liquid fuels. The engine project is part-funded jointly by the United Kingdom's Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Department of the Environment of Northern Ireland (DoENI). The engineering team includes Lotus Engineering, Jaguar Cars, Orbital Corporation and Queen's University Belfast. The research engine so far constructed is of a typical automotive cylinder capacity and operates on an externally-scavenged version of the two-port Day 2-stroke cycle, utilising both a variable charge trapping mechanism to control both trapped charge and residual concentration and a wide-range variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism in the cylinder head.
Journal Article

Removal of NOx from Diesel Exhausts: The New “Enhanced NH3-SCR” Reaction

2010-04-12
2010-01-1181
Ammonia/urea-SCR is a mature technology, applied worldwide for the control of NOx emissions in combustion exhausts from thermal power plants, cogeneration units, incinerators and stationary diesel engines and more recently also from mobile sources. However a greater DeNOx activity at low temperatures is desired in order to meet more and more restrictive legislations. In this paper we report transient and steady state data collected over commercial Fe-ZSM-5 and V₂O₅-WO₃/TiO₂ catalysts showing high NOx reduction efficiencies in the 200 - 350°C T-range when NO and ammonia react with nitrates, e.g., in the form of an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. Under such conditions a new reaction occurs, the so-called "Enhanced SCR" reaction, 2 NH₃ + 2 NO + NH₄NO₃ → 3 N₂ + 5 H₂O.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Systems Definition Process

1995-02-01
950811
The pressures on the Automotive Industry from both future legislation and customer requirements mean that major changes in Powertrain and Vehicle Systems matching will be needed. This paper reviews some possible future technologies and describes the process by which the often mutually exclusive total vehicle performance objectives can best be satisfied. In conclusion the paper includes a brief case study showing a proposed solution to a set of possible future vehicle performance and fuel economy objectives. The process is based on empirical data, experience and w-here appropriate, analytical techniques.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Wing-Diffuser Interaction on a Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1433
Amongst the aerodynamic devices often found on race cars, the diffuser is one of the most important items. The diffuser can work both to reduce drag and also to increase downforce. It has been shown in previously published studies, that the efficiency of the diffuser is a function of the diffuser angle, ground clearance and most importantly, the base pressure. The base pressure of a car is defined by the shape of the car and in particular the shape at the rear end, including the rear wheels. Furthermore, on most race cars, a wing is mounted at the rear end. Since the rear wheels and wing will influence the base pressure it is believed that, for a modern race car, there could be a strong interaction between these items and the diffuser. This work aims to systematically study the interaction between the rear wheels and wing; and the diffuser of a contemporary, sports car type, race vehicle.
Technical Paper

Does European Type Approval Procedure Encourage the Diffusion of Hybrid and Other Low Emission Vehicles?

2010-05-05
2010-01-1445
European Type approval procedure defines a synthetic driving cycle (the NEDC) over which one vehicle per type has to be tested. Euro 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 differ (beside vehicle preconditioning and warm-up procedures introduced since Euro 3) only because limits for the different pollutants have been progressively lowered. This paper analyses through a number of experimental tests on spark-ignition cars, a hybrid and a conventional vehicle, the driving conditions responsible for most of the emissions and assesses how such conditions are reproduced by the type approval test. The engine conditions mostly responsible for emissions are: warm-up phase, full loads and transients. Only the warm-up is well covered by the NEDC for vehicles with more than 35 kW/ton power-weight ratio.
Technical Paper

GEM Ternary Blends of Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol: An Initial Investigation into Fuel Spray and Combustion Characteristics in a Direct-Injected Spark-Ignition Optical Engine Using Mie Imaging

2012-09-10
2012-01-1740
Five different fuels, including gasoline, commercial E85, pure methanol and two mixtures of gasoline, ethanol and methanol, (GEM), configured to a target stoichiometric air fuel ratio have been investigated in a fully-optically-accessed engine. The work investigated effects of injection duration, and performed spray imaging, thermodynamic analysis of the combustion and OH imaging, for two fixed engine conditions of 2.7 and 3.7 bar NMEP at 2000 rpm. The engine was operated with constant ignition timing for all fuels and both loads. One of the most important results from this study was the suitability of a single type of injector to handle all the fuels tested. There were differences observed in the spray morphology between the fuels, due to the different physical properties of the fuels. The energy utilisation measured in this study showed differences of up to 14% for the different GEM fuels whereas an earlier in-vehicle study had showed only 2 to 3%.
Technical Paper

GEM Ternary Blends: Removing the Biomass Limit by using Iso-Stoichiometric Mixtures of Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol

2011-09-11
2011-24-0113
The paper presents the concept of ternary blends of gasoline, ethanol and methanol in which the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (AFR) is controlled to be 9.7:1, the same as that of conventional ‘E85’ alcohol-based fuel. This makes them iso-stoichiometric. Such blends are termed ‘GEM’ after the first initial of the three components. Calculated data is presented showing how the volumetric energy density relationship between the three components in these blends changes as the stoichiometric AFR is held constant but ethanol content is varied. From this data it is contended that such GEM blends can be ‘drop-in’ alternatives to E85, because when an engine is operated on any of these blends the pulse widths of the fuel injectors would not change significantly, and so there will be no impact on the on-board diagnostics from the use of such blends in existing E85/gasoline flex-fuel vehicles.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Gas Exchange and Fuel-Air Mixing Processes in a Direct-Injection, Gas Fueled Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0036
Direct-injection technology represents today a very interesting solution to the typical problems that are generally encountered in SI, gas-fueled engines such as reduced volumetric efficiency, backfire and knock. However, development of suitable injection systems and combustion chamber geometry is necessary to optimize the fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. To this end, CFD models are widely applied even if the influence of the mesh structure, numerical and turbulence models on the computed results are still matter of investigation. In this work, a numerical methodology for the simulation of the gas exchange and injection processes in gas-fueled engines was developed within the Lib-ICE framework, which is a set of libraries and applications for IC engine modeling developed using the OpenFOAM® technology. The gas exchange and fuel injection processes were simulated into a four-valve, pent-roof hydrogen-fueled engine with optical access.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines Operating with Variable Charge Premixing Levels

2011-09-11
2011-24-0027
Premixed combustion modes in compression ignition engines are studied as a promising solution to meet fuel economy and increasingly stringent emissions regulations. Nevertheless, PCCI combustion systems are not yet consolidated enough for practical applications. The high complexity of such combustion systems in terms of both air-fuel charge preparation and combustion process control requires the employment of robust and reliable numerical tools to provide adequate comprehension of the phenomena. Object of this work is the development and validation of suitable models to evaluate the effects of charge premixing levels in diesel combustion. This activity was performed using the Lib-ICE code, which is a set of applications and libraries for IC engine simulations developed using the OpenFOAM® technology.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analyses for the Characterization of the Cyclic Dispersion and Knock Occurrence in a Small-Size SI Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0069
In this paper, an experimental and numerical analysis of combustion process and knock occurrence in a small displacement spark-ignition engine is presented. A wide experimental campaign is preliminarily carried out in order to fully characterize the engine behavior in different operating conditions. In particular, the acquisition of a large number of consecutive pressure cycle is realized to analyze the Cyclic Variability (CV) effects in terms of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Coefficient of Variation (CoV). The spark advance is also changed up to incipient knocking conditions, basing on a proper definition of a knock index. The latter is estimated through the decomposition and the FFT analysis of the instantaneous pressure cycles. Contemporary, a quasi-dimensional combustion and knock model, included within a whole engine one-dimensional (1D) modeling framework, are developed. Combustion and knock models are extended to include the CV effects, too.
Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Ride Comfort Assessment of a Subject Seated into a Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0777
A comprehensive research is presented aiming at assessing the ride comfort of subjects seated into road or off-road vehicles. Although many papers and books have appeared in the literature, many issues on ride comfort are still to be understood, in particular, the paper investigates the mutual effects of the posture and the vibration caused mostly from road unevenness. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, a mathematical model of a seated subject is validated by means of actual measurements on human subjects riding on a car. Such measurements refer to the accelerations acting at the subject/seat interface (vertical acceleration at the seat cushion and horizontal acceleration at the seat back). A proper dummy is used to derive the seat stiffness and damping.
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