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Journal Article

An Objective Measure for Automotive Surface Contamination

Surface contamination, or soiling, of the exterior of road vehicles can be unsightly, can reduce visibility and customer satisfaction, and, with the increasing application of surface-mounted sensors, can degrade the performance of advanced driver-assistance systems. Experimental methods of evaluating surface contamination are increasingly used in the product development process, but the results are generally subjective. The use of computational methods for predicting contamination makes objective measures possible, but comparable data from experiment is an important validation requirement. This article describes the development of an objective measure of surface contamination arising during experiments. A series of controlled experiments using ultraviolet (UV) dye-doped water are conducted to develop a robust methodology. This process is then applied to a simplified contamination test.
Journal Article

Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid Simulations of Water Flowing Over a Simplified Drainage Channel With and Without Air Coflow

The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. We present simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces under the influence of gravity with and without the addition of aerodynamic forces on the liquid. This is done using an implementation of a Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. This is a high fidelity interface-resolving method that solves for the velocity field in both phases without restrictions on the flow regime. In the current paper the suitability of the approach to Exterior Water Management (EWM) is demonstrated using the representative test cases of a continuous liquid rivulet flowing along an inclined surface with a channel located downstream perpendicular to the oncoming flow.