Refine Your Search


Search Results

Technical Paper

Parametric Study into the Effects of Factors Affecting Real-World Vehicle Exhaust Emission Levels

The work presented investigates the effect of road gradient, head-wind, horizontal road curvature, changes in tyre rolling radius, vehicle drag co-efficient and vehicle weight on real-world emission levels of a modern EURO-IV vehicle. A validated steady-state engine performance map based vehicle modeling approach has been used for the analysis. The results showed that a generalized correction factor to include the effect of road-gradient on real-world emission levels might not yield accurate results, since the emission levels are strongly dependent on the position of the vehicle operating parameters on the engine maps. In addition, it also demonstrated that the inclusion of horizontal road curvature such as roundabouts and traffic islands are essential for the estimation of the real-world emission levels.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Raised Freestream Turbulence on the Flow Around Leading Edge Radii

The turbulence environment in the real world is known to be significantly different to that found in a typical automotive wind tunnel. Various studies have shown that raising the level of freestream turbulence has an effect on the forces on generic bluff bodies and real vehicles. Previous work at Loughborough has shown a significant effect of raised freestream turbulence on edge radius optimisation using measurements of forces and moments, and in this paper the underlying changes in the flowfield are investigated using PIV. Results are presented of the flowfield around the leading edge radius of the generic bluff body used in the previous work. The effect of changing the Reynolds number is investigated in the clean tunnel (0.2% turbulence), and it is found that, when the radius is small, there is a significant separation that persists up to a high speed, and then abruptly collapses.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of the Flow around a Stationary and Rotating Isolated Wheel and the Influence of a Moving Ground Plane

This study investigates the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a rotating and stationary 60% scale isolated wheel, with and without the use of a moving ground plane. The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of the fundamental aerodynamic flow features around a wheel and to examine how rotation and moving ground planes modify these and affect the production of drag. A bespoke rotating wheel rig was designed and wind tunnel tests were performed over a range of pre to post critical Reynolds numbers. Force coefficients were obtained using balance measurements and flow field data were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The unsteady flow field data generated was used to validate unsteady CFD predictions. These were performed using STAR-CCM+ and a k-ω SST Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) turbulence model. This was seen to outperform other models by capturing an increased amount of finer detailed, high frequency vortical structures.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of a Compact SUV as Measured On-Road and in the Wind Tunnel

Growing concerns about the environmental impact of road vehicles will lead to a reduction in the aerodynamic drag for all passenger cars. This includes Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) and light trucks which have relatively high drag coefficients and large frontal area. The wind tunnel remains the tool of choice for the vehicle aerodynamicist, but it is important that the benefits obtained in the wind tunnel reflect improvements to the vehicle on the road. Coastdown measurements obtained using a Land Rover Freelander, in various configurations, have been made to determine aerodynamic drag and these have been compared with wind tunnel data for the same vehicle. Repeatability of the coastdown data, the effects of drag variation near to zero yaw and asymmetry in the drag-yaw data on the results from coastdown testing are assessed. Alternative blockage corrections for the wind tunnel measurements are examined.
Technical Paper

On the Aerodynamics of a Goodwood Festival of Speed Gravity Racer

Considerable engineering effort is now being applied to the design and development of Soapboxes entered in the Goodwood Festival of Speed Gravity Challenge. With average speeds of 18 ms-1 (40 mph) from a standing start along the 0.7 mile course and maximum speeds of around 27 ms-1 (60 mph), the aerodynamic contribution to performance is significant. This paper discusses the aerodynamic considerations given to the design of the leading Soapboxes and to the racing conditions experienced. Analysis and test techniques which may also be employed are also described.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on A-pillar Airflow

Various studies have shown that the level of wind noise experienced inside cars on the road in unsteady conditions can be substantially different from that measured in wind tunnel tests conducted using a low turbulence facility. In this paper a simple geometric body representing the cabin of a passenger car has been used to investigate the effects of free stream turbulence, (FST), on the A-pillar vortex flowfield and the side glass pressure distribution. Beneath the A-pillar vortex, both mean and dynamic pressures are increased by FST. The unsteady pressure can be associated with wind noise and the flow visualization shows the peak unsteadiness is related to the separation of the secondary vortex.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Wake Structure of Square Back Vehicles and the Effect of Structure Modification on Resultant Vehicle Forces

A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle (30%(1) or more depending on vehicle shape) arises from the low base pressure in the wake region, especially on square-back configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimization, but the flow structures and mechanisms within the wake that cause these base pressure changes are not well understood. A more complete understanding of these mechanisms may provide opportunities for further drag reductions from both passive shape changes and in the future through the use of active flow control technologies. In this work surprisingly large changes in drag and lift coefficients of a square-back style vehicle have been measured as a result of physically small passive modifications. Tests were performed at quarter scale using a simplified vehicle model (Windsor Model) and at full scale using an MPV. The full scale vehicle was tested with and without a flat floor.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Transient Aerodynamics Using an Oscillating Model Facility

A method for the estimation of transient aerodynamic data from dynamic wind tunnel tests has been developed and employed in the study of the unsteady response of simple automotive type bodies. The paper describes the facility and analysis techniques employed and reports the results of a parametric study of model rear slant angle and of the influence of C-pillar strakes. The model is shown to exhibit damped, self-sustained and self-excited behaviour. The transient results are compared with quasi-steady predictions based on conventional tunnel balance data through the calculation of derivative magnification factors. For all slant angles tested the results show that the quasi-steady prediction is a poor estimate of the real transient behaviour. In addition the slant angle is shown to have significant effect on the level of unsteadiness. The addition of C-pillar strakes is shown to stabilise the flow with even small height strakes yielding responses well below that of steady-state.
Technical Paper

On the Optimisation of Road Vehicle Leading Edge Radius in Varying Levels of Freestream Turbulence

It has been recognised that the ideal flow conditions that exist in the modern automotive wind tunnel do not accurately simulate the environment experienced by vehicles on the road. This paper investigates the effect of varying one flow parameter, freestream turbulence, and a single shape parameter, leading edge radius, on aerodynamic drag. The tests were carried out at model scale in the Loughborough University Wind Tunnel, using a very simple 2-box shape, and in the MIRA Full Scale Wind Tunnel using the MIRA squareback Reference Car. Turbulence intensities up to 5% were generated by grids and had a strong effect on transcritical Reynolds number and Reynolds sensitivity at both model scale and full scale. There was a good correlation between the results in both tunnels.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Simple Bluff Body Using Base Bleed

Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a simple bluff body model, representing a car like shape, to investigate drag reduction opportunities from injecting low velocity air into the base region. This flow is known as base bleed. Most tests have been carried out using a square back shape. The effects of flow rate, porosity and porosity distribution over the base area have been investigated. In all cases drag is reduced with increasing bleed rate, but the optimum porosity is a function of bleed rate. A significant part of the drag reduction occurs without the bleed flow and arises from the presence of a cavity in the model. The effects of cavity size are examined for different base configurations. Some factors affecting implementation are considered.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Cars at Yaw

The aerodynamic drag characteristics of a passenger car are typically defined by a single parameter, the drag coefficient at zero yaw angle. While this has been acceptable in the past, it may not allow a true comparison between vehicles with regard to the impact of drag on performance, especially fuel economy. An alternative measure of aerodynamic drag should take into account the effect of non-zero yaw angles and some proposals have been made in the past, including variations of wind-averaged drag coefficient. For almost all cars the drag increases with yaw, but the increase can vary significantly between vehicles. In this paper the effect of various parameters on the drag rise with yaw are considered for a range of different vehicle types. The increase of drag with yaw is shown to be an essentially induced drag, which is strongly dependent on both side force and lift. Shape factors which influence the sensitivity of drag with yaw are discussed.
Journal Article

A Fully Coupled, 6 Degree-of-Freedom, Aerodynamic and Vehicle Handling Crosswind Simulation using the DrivAer Model

In a real-world environment, a vehicle on the road is subjected to a range of flow yaw angles, the most severe of which can impact handling and stability. A fully coupled, six degrees-of-freedom CFD and vehicle handling simulation has modelled the complete closed loop system. Varying flow yaw angles are introduced via time dependent boundary conditions and aerodynamic loads predicted, whilst a handling model running simultaneously calculates the resulting vehicle response. Updates to the vehicle position and orientation within the CFD simulation are achieved using the overset grid method. Using this approach, a crosswind simulation that follows the parameters of ISO 12021:2010 (Sensitivity to lateral wind - Open-loop test method using wind generator input), was performed using the fastback variant of the DrivAer model. Fully coupled aerodynamic and vehicle response was compared to that obtained using the simplified quasi-steady and unsteady, one way coupled method.
Journal Article

The Study of a Bi-Stable Wake Region of a Generic Squareback Vehicle using Tomographic PIV

This paper demonstrates the use of large scale tomographic PIV to study the wake region of a Windsor model. This forms part of a larger study intending to understand the mechanisms that drive drag force changes when rear end optimizations are applied. For the first time, tomographic PIV has been applied to a large airflow volume (0.125m3, 500 x 500 x 500mm), which is of sufficient size to capture the near wake of a 25% scale Windsor model in a single measurement. The measurement volume is illuminated using a 200mJ double pulsed Nd:Yag laser fitted with a volume optic and seeded with 300μm helium filled soap bubbles generated by a novel high output seeder. Images were captured using four 4M Pixel LaVision cameras. The tomographic results are shown to produce high quality data with the setup used, but further improvements and tests at higher Reynolds number could be conducted if an additional seeding rake was used to increase seeding density.
Technical Paper

Towards Optimal Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Engine

Thermoelectric generator has very quickly become a hot research topic in the last five years because its broad application area and very attractive features such as no moving parts, low maintenance, variety of thermoelectric materials that total together cover a wide temperature range. The biggest disadvantage of the thermoelectric generator is its low conversion efficiency. So that when design and manufacture a thermoelectric generator for exhaust waste heat recovery from an automotive engine, the benefit of fuel consumption from applying a thermoelectric generator would be very sensitive to the weight, the dimensions, the cost and the practical conversion efficiency. Additionally, the exhaust gas conditions vary with the change of engine operating point. This creates a big challenge for the design of the hot side heat exchanger in terms of optimizing the electrical output of the thermoelectric generator during an engine transient cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Side Forces on Passenger Cars at Yaw

Side force has an influence on the behaviour of passenger cars in windy conditions. It increases approximately linearly with yaw angle over a significant range of yaw for almost all cars and the side force derivative, (the gradient of side force coefficient with yaw angle), is similar for vehicles of a given category and size. The shape factors and components which affect side force for different vehicle types are discussed. The dominant influence on side force, for most cars, however, is shown to be the vehicle height which is consistent with slender wing theory if the car and its mirror image are considered. This simple theory is shown to apply to 1-box and 2- box shapes, covering most MPVs, hatchbacks and SUVs, but does not adequately represent the side forces on notchback and fastback car shapes. Data from simple bodies is used to develop a modification to the basic theory, which is applied to these vehicle types.
Journal Article

A Drag Coefficient for Test Cycle Application

The drag coefficient at zero yaw angle is the single parameter usually used to define the aerodynamic drag characteristics of a passenger car. However, this is usually the minimum drag condition and will, for example, lead to an underestimate of the effect of aerodynamic drag on fuel consumption because the important influence of the natural wind has been excluded. An alternative measure of aerodynamic drag should take into account the effect of nonzero yaw angles and a variant of wind-averaged drag is suggested as the best option. A wind-averaged drag coefficient (CDW) is usually derived for a particular vehicle speed using a representative wind speed distribution. In the particular case where the road speed distribution is specified, as for a drive cycle to determine fuel economy, a relevant drag coefficient can be derived by using a weighted road speed.
Journal Article

The Effect of a Sheared Crosswind Flow on Car Aerodynamics

In the wind tunnel the effect of a wind input on the aerodynamic characteristics of any road vehicle is simulated by yawing the vehicle. This represents a wind input where the wind velocity is constant with height above the ground. In reality the natural wind is a boundary layer flow and is sheared so that the wind velocity will vary with height. A CFD simulation has been conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of a DrivAer model, in fastback and squareback form, subject to a crosswind flow, with and without shear. The yaw simulation has been carried out at a yaw angle of 10° and with one shear flow exponent. It is shown that the car experiences almost identical forces and moments in the two cases when the mass flow in the crosswind over the height of the car is similar. Load distributions are presented for the two cases. The implications for wind averaged drag are discussed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of a GDI Engine Flow Using LES and POD

This paper presents the findings from a numerical study of a gasoline direct injection engine flow using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modelling technique. The study is carried out over 30 successive engine cycles. The study illustrates how the more simple but robust Smagorinsky LES sub-grid scale turbulence model can be applied to a complex engine geometry with realistic engineering mesh size and computational expense whilst still meeting the filter width requirements to resolve the majority of large scale turbulent structures. Detailed description is provided here for the computational setup, including the initialisation strategy. The mesh is evaluated using a turbulence resolution parameter and shows the solution to generally resolve upwards of 80% of the turbulence kinetic energy.
Technical Paper

A Parallel Hybrid Drive System for Small Vehicles: Architecture and Control Systems

The TC48 project is developing a state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The modelling work was used in order to support and justify the design choices made. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The physical embodiment of the design is not reported in this paper. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system.