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Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Multi-Scale Simulation for Large-Scale Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0381
PEMFC (proton exchange membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) is a potential candidate as a future power source for automobile applications. Water and thermal management is important to PEMFC operation. Numerical models, which describe the transport and electrochemical phenomena occurring in PEMFCs, are important to the water and thermal management of fuel cells. 3D (three-dimensional) multi-scale CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models take into account the real geometry structure and thus are capable of predicting real operation/performance. In this study, a 3D multi-phase CFD model is employed to simulate a large-scale PEMFC (109.93 cm2) under various operating conditions. More specifically, the effects of operating pressure (1.0-4.0 atm) on fuel cell performance and internal water and thermal characteristics are studied in detail under two inlet humidities, 100% and 40%.
Technical Paper

A Bifurcation Analysis of an Open Loop Internal Combustion Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0194
The process of engine mapping in the automotive industry identifies steady-state engine responses by running an engine at a given operating point (speed and load) until its output has settled. While the time simulating this process with a computational model for one set of parameters is relatively short, the cumulative time to map all possible combinations becomes computationally inefficient. This work presents an alternative method for mapping out the steady-state response of an engine in simulation by applying bifurcation theory. The bifurcation approach used in this work allows the engine’s steady-state response to be traced through the model’s state-parameter space under the simultaneous variation of one or more model parameters. To demonstrate this approach, a bifurcation analysis of a simplified nonlinear engine model is presented.
Technical Paper

Review of Selection Criteria for Sensor and Actuator Configurations Suitable for Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0758
This literature review considers the problem of finding a suitable configuration of sensors and actuators for the control of an internal combustion engine. It takes a look at the methods, algorithms, processes, metrics, applications, research groups and patents relevant for this topic. Several formal metric have been proposed, but practical use remains limited. Maximal information criteria are theoretically optimal for selecting sensors, but hard to apply to a system as complex and nonlinear as an engine. Thus, we reviewed methods applied to neighboring fields including nonlinear systems and non-minimal phase systems. Furthermore, the closed loop nature of control means that information is not the only consideration, and speed, stability and robustness have to be considered. The optimal use of sensor information also requires the use of models, observers, state estimators or virtual sensors, and practical acceptance of these remains limited.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of the Flow around a Stationary and Rotating Isolated Wheel and the Influence of a Moving Ground Plane

2019-04-02
2019-01-0647
This study investigates the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a rotating and stationary 60% scale isolated wheel, with and without the use of a moving ground plane. The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of the fundamental aerodynamic flow features around a wheel and to examine how rotation and moving ground planes modify these and affect the production of drag. A bespoke rotating wheel rig was designed and wind tunnel tests were performed over a range of pre to post critical Reynolds numbers. Force coefficients were obtained using balance measurements and flow field data were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The unsteady flow field data generated was used to validate unsteady CFD predictions. These were performed using STAR-CCM+ and a k-ω SST Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) turbulence model. This was seen to outperform other models by capturing an increased amount of finer detailed, high frequency vortical structures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of DI Diesel Engine Performance Using Three Different Biodiesel Fuels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0234
Methyl esters derived from vegetable oils by the process of transesterification (commonly referred as ‘biodiesel’), can be used as an alternative fuel in compression ignition engines. In this study, three different vegetable oils (rape, soy and waste oil) were used to produce biodiesel fuels that were then tested in a four cylinder direct injection engine, typically used in small diesel genset applications. Engine performance and emissions were recorded at five load conditions and at two different speeds. This paper presents the results obtained for measurements of NOx and smoke opacity at the different speed and load conditions for the three biodiesels, and their blends (5 and 50% v/v) with mineral diesel. A simple combustion analysis was also performed where ignition delay, position and magnitude of peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were examined to asses how the variation of chemical structure and blend percentage affects engine performance.
Technical Paper

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Transport Mechanisms: Simulation Study of Hydrogen Crossover and Water Content

2008-06-23
2008-01-1802
Hydrogen crossover and membrane hydration are significant issues for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Hydrogen crossover amounts to a quantity of unspent fuel, thereby reducing the fuel efficiency of the cell, but more significantly it also gives rise to the formation of hydrogen peroxide in the cathode catalyst layer which acts to irreversibly degenerate the polymer electrolyte. Membrane hydration not only strongly governs the performance of the cell, most noticeable through its effect on the ionic conductivity of the membrane, it also influences the onset and propagation of internal degradation and failure mechanisms that curtail the reliability and safety of PEFCs. This paper focuses on how hydrogen crossover and membrane hydration are affected by; (a) characteristic cell geometries, and (b) operating conditions relevant to automotive fuel cells.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of a Compact SUV as Measured On-Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2002-03-04
2002-01-0529
Growing concerns about the environmental impact of road vehicles will lead to a reduction in the aerodynamic drag for all passenger cars. This includes Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) and light trucks which have relatively high drag coefficients and large frontal area. The wind tunnel remains the tool of choice for the vehicle aerodynamicist, but it is important that the benefits obtained in the wind tunnel reflect improvements to the vehicle on the road. Coastdown measurements obtained using a Land Rover Freelander, in various configurations, have been made to determine aerodynamic drag and these have been compared with wind tunnel data for the same vehicle. Repeatability of the coastdown data, the effects of drag variation near to zero yaw and asymmetry in the drag-yaw data on the results from coastdown testing are assessed. Alternative blockage corrections for the wind tunnel measurements are examined.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission Evaluation of a Small Diesel Engine Fuelled with Coconut Oil Methyl Esters

1998-02-23
981156
Renewable sources of energy need to be developed to fulfill future energy demands in areas such as the Maldives where traditional sources of raw materials are limited or non-existent. This paper explores the use of an alternative fuel derived from coconut oil that can be produced in the Maldives and can be used in place of diesel fuel. The main advantage of this particular fuel is that it is a highly saturated oil with a calorific value close to standard diesel fuel. The viscosity of the crude coconut oil is much higher than standard diesel fuel. To reduce the viscosity and to make the oil more suitable for conventional diesel engines methyl esters were produced using the transesterification process (1). The engine performed well on the coconut oil methyl esters although there was a small reduction in power consistent with the lower calorific value of the alternative fuel. Comparative performance data together with the emission levels for the two fuels are presented.
Journal Article

Development of Model Predictive Controller for SOFC-IC Engine Hybrid System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0146
Fuel cell hybrid systems have emerged rapidly in efforts to reduce emissions. The success of these systems mainly depends on implementation of suitable control architectures. This paper presents a control system design for a novel fuel cell - IC Engine hybrid power system. Control oriented models of the system components are developed and integrated. Based on the simulation results of the system model, the control variables are identified. The main objective for the control design is to manage fuel, air and exhaust flows in a way to deliver the required load on the system within local constraints. The controller developed for regulating flows in the system is based on model predictive control theory. The performance of the overall control system is assessed through simulations on a nonlinear dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Validated CFD Process for the Analysis of Inlet Manifold Flows with EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0071
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of several technologies that are being investigated to deliver future legislative emissions targets for diesel engines. Its application requires a detailed understanding of the thermo-fluidic processes within the engine's air system. A validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) process is one way of providing this understanding. This paper describes a CFD process to analyse unsteady manifold flows and mixing fields in the presence of realistic levels of EGR. The validation methodology was drawn from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and divides the problem into smaller elemental problems. Detailed knowledge about these elemental problems is easily attainable, reducing the requirement for a large number of complex validation runs. The final validated process was compared to flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) data collected from a motored engine.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Underbody Roughness on Rear Wake Structure of a Squareback Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0463
In this paper the effects of a rough underbody on the rear wake structure of a simplified squareback model (the Windsor model) is investigated using balance measurements, base pressure measurements and two and three component planar PIV. The work forms part of a larger study to develop understanding of the mechanisms that influence overall base pressure and hence the resulting aerodynamic drag. In the work reported in this paper the impact of a rough underbody on the base pressure and wake flow structures is quantified at three different ground clearances. The underbody roughness has been created through the addition of five roughness strips to the underbody of the model and the effects on the wake at ground clearances of 10.3%, 17.3% and 24.2% of the model height are assessed. All work has been carried out in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel with a ¼ scale model giving a blockage ratio of 4.4% for a smooth under-body or 4.5% with the maximum thickness roughness strips.
Journal Article

A Modal-Based Derivation of Transient Pressure Distribution Along the Tyre-Road Contact

2009-04-20
2009-01-0457
The two-dimensional, frictional tyre-road contact interaction is investigated. A transient contact algorithm is developed, consisting of an analytical belt model, a non linear sidewall structure and a discretized viscoelastic tread foundation. The relationship between the magnitude/shape of the predicted two-dimensional pressure distribution and the corresponding belt deformation is identified. The effect of vertical load and the role of sidewall non linearity are highlighted. The modal expansion/reduction method is proposed for the increase of the computational efficiency and the effect of the degree of reduction on the simulation accuracy is presented. The qualitative results are physically explained through the participation of certain modes in the equilibrium solution, offering directions for the application of the modal reduction method in shear force oriented tyre models.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Control Design of a SOFC-IC Engine Hybrid System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0082
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Wake Structure of Square Back Vehicles and the Effect of Structure Modification on Resultant Vehicle Forces

2011-06-09
2011-37-0015
A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle (30%(1) or more depending on vehicle shape) arises from the low base pressure in the wake region, especially on square-back configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimization, but the flow structures and mechanisms within the wake that cause these base pressure changes are not well understood. A more complete understanding of these mechanisms may provide opportunities for further drag reductions from both passive shape changes and in the future through the use of active flow control technologies. In this work surprisingly large changes in drag and lift coefficients of a square-back style vehicle have been measured as a result of physically small passive modifications. Tests were performed at quarter scale using a simplified vehicle model (Windsor Model) and at full scale using an MPV. The full scale vehicle was tested with and without a flat floor.
Technical Paper

On the Optimisation of Road Vehicle Leading Edge Radius in Varying Levels of Freestream Turbulence

2006-04-03
2006-01-1029
It has been recognised that the ideal flow conditions that exist in the modern automotive wind tunnel do not accurately simulate the environment experienced by vehicles on the road. This paper investigates the effect of varying one flow parameter, freestream turbulence, and a single shape parameter, leading edge radius, on aerodynamic drag. The tests were carried out at model scale in the Loughborough University Wind Tunnel, using a very simple 2-box shape, and in the MIRA Full Scale Wind Tunnel using the MIRA squareback Reference Car. Turbulence intensities up to 5% were generated by grids and had a strong effect on transcritical Reynolds number and Reynolds sensitivity at both model scale and full scale. There was a good correlation between the results in both tunnels.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Spray/Wall Interaction Models under the Conditions Related to Diesel HCCI Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1632
Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with early injection can result in significant spray/wall impingement which seriously affects the fuel efficiency and emissions. In this paper, the spray/wall interaction models which are available in the literatures are reviewed, and the characteristics of modeling including spray impingement regime, splash threshold, mass fraction, size and velocity of the second droplets are summarized. Then three well developed spray/wall interaction models, O'Rourke and Amsden (OA) model, Bai and Gosman (BG) model and Han, Xu and Trigui (HXT) model, are implemented into KIVA-3V code, and validated by the experimental data from recent literatures under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. By comparing the spray pattern, droplet mass, size and velocity after the impingement, the thickness of the wall film and vapor distribution with the experimental data, the performance of these three models are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Kalman Filter and Robust Filter for Vehicle Handling Dynamics State Estimation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1185
This paper explores design methods for a vehicle handling dynamics state estimator based on a linear vehicle model. The state estimator is needed because there are some states of the vehicle that cannot be measured directly, such as sideslip velocity, and also some which are relatively expensive to measure, such as roll and yaw rates. Information about the vehicle states is essential for vehicle handling stability control and is also valuable in chassis design evaluation. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a Kalman filter with that of a robust filter, under conditions which would be realistic and viable for a production vehicle. Both filters are thus designed and tested with reference to a higher order source model which incorporates nonlinear saturating tyre force characteristics. Also, both filters rely solely on accelerometer sensors, which are simulated with expected noise characteristics in terms of amplitude and spectra.
Technical Paper

Automatic PI Controller Calibration Optimization using Model-Based Calibration Approach

2015-09-01
2015-01-1989
Model-based calibration (MBC) is a systematic method to calibrate an engine control unit (ECU) system. Due to the working principle of MBC, it is only being used for steady-state systems (time independent models). This limits the use of MBC; because an ECU contains statistical and dynamical systems. Due to the limitations of MBC, dynamical systems require manual tuning which may be time-consuming. With the increasing popularity in hybrid and electrical vehicle systems, most of them rely on dynamical systems. Therefore, MBC is about to be superseded by manual parameterization methods. Remarkably, MBC is not limited to the steady state systems. It can be achieved by separating the time factor of a system and extracting the statistical data from a time series measurement. Typically, MBC model is conceived as the representation of a system plant (i.e.: air path, fuel path, mean value engine model). As a matter of fact, MBC model is not limited to identification of system plant.
Journal Article

Design and Optimisation of the Propulsion Control Strategy for a Pneumatic Hybrid City Bus

2016-04-05
2016-01-1175
A control strategy has been designed for a city bus equipped with a pneumatic hybrid propulsion system. The control system design is based on the precise management of energy flows during both energy storage and regeneration. Energy recovered from the braking process is stored in the form of compressed air that is redeployed for engine start and to supplement the engine air supply during vehicle acceleration. Operation modes are changed dynamically and the energy distribution is controlled to realize three principal functions: Stop-Start, Boost and Regenerative Braking. A forward facing simulation model facilitates an analysis of the vehicle dynamic performance, engine transient response, fuel economy and energy usage.
Journal Article

A Fully Coupled, 6 Degree-of-Freedom, Aerodynamic and Vehicle Handling Crosswind Simulation using the DrivAer Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-1601
In a real-world environment, a vehicle on the road is subjected to a range of flow yaw angles, the most severe of which can impact handling and stability. A fully coupled, six degrees-of-freedom CFD and vehicle handling simulation has modelled the complete closed loop system. Varying flow yaw angles are introduced via time dependent boundary conditions and aerodynamic loads predicted, whilst a handling model running simultaneously calculates the resulting vehicle response. Updates to the vehicle position and orientation within the CFD simulation are achieved using the overset grid method. Using this approach, a crosswind simulation that follows the parameters of ISO 12021:2010 (Sensitivity to lateral wind - Open-loop test method using wind generator input), was performed using the fastback variant of the DrivAer model. Fully coupled aerodynamic and vehicle response was compared to that obtained using the simplified quasi-steady and unsteady, one way coupled method.
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