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Technical Paper

Comparison between Kalman Filter and Robust Filter for Vehicle Handling Dynamics State Estimation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1185
This paper explores design methods for a vehicle handling dynamics state estimator based on a linear vehicle model. The state estimator is needed because there are some states of the vehicle that cannot be measured directly, such as sideslip velocity, and also some which are relatively expensive to measure, such as roll and yaw rates. Information about the vehicle states is essential for vehicle handling stability control and is also valuable in chassis design evaluation. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a Kalman filter with that of a robust filter, under conditions which would be realistic and viable for a production vehicle. Both filters are thus designed and tested with reference to a higher order source model which incorporates nonlinear saturating tyre force characteristics. Also, both filters rely solely on accelerometer sensors, which are simulated with expected noise characteristics in terms of amplitude and spectra.
Technical Paper

A Process Definition Environment for Component Based Manufacturing Machine Control Systems Developed Under the Foresight Vehicle Programme

2002-03-04
2002-01-0468
The COMponent Based Paradigm for AGile Automation (COMPAG) provides a component-based solution to engine production-line machine control systems. The traditional PLC system is replaced with a distributed control network containing intelligent nodes comprising locally controlled actuators and sensors. The Process Definition Environment provides support for the specification, configuration, and maintenance of the machine control application and facilitates both the initial design and maintenance stages of the lifecycle by describing the control logic as a set of consistent timing and state transition diagrams commonly used in the initial design stages.
Technical Paper

The Turboexpansion Concept - Initial Dynamometer Results

2005-04-11
2005-01-1853
An expedient route to improving in-vehicle fuel economy in 4-stroke cycle engines is to reduce the swept volume of an engine and run it at a higher BMEP for any given output. The full-load performance of a larger capacity engine can be achieved through pressure charging. However, for maximum fuel economy, particularly at part-load, the expansion ratio, and consequently the compression ratio (CR) should be kept as high as possible. This is at odds with the requirement in pressure-charged gasoline engines to reduce the CR at higher loads due to the knock limit. In earlier work, the authors studied a pressure-charging system aimed at allowing a high CR to be maintained at all times. The operation of this type of system involves deliberately over-compressing the charge air, cooling it at the elevated pressure and temperature, and then expanding it down to the desired plenum pressure, ensuring a plenum temperature which can potentially become sub-atmospheric at full-load.
Technical Paper

A Fault-Tolerant Processor Core Architecture for Safety-Critical Automotive Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0322
The introduction of drive-by-wire systems into modern vehicles has generated new challenges for the designers of embedded systems. These systems, based primarily on microcontrollers, need to achieve very high levels of reliability and availability, but also have to satisfy the strict cost and packaging constraints of the automotive industry. Advances in VLSI technology have allowed the development of single-chip systems, but have also increased the rate of intermittent and transient faults that come as a result of the continuous shrinkage of the CMOS process feature size. This paper presents a low-cost, fault-tolerant system-on-chip architecture suitable for drive-by-wire and other safety-related applications, based on a triple-modular-redundancy configuration at the processor execution pipeline level.
Technical Paper

On the Aerodynamics of a Goodwood Festival of Speed Gravity Racer

2004-11-30
2004-01-3548
Considerable engineering effort is now being applied to the design and development of Soapboxes entered in the Goodwood Festival of Speed Gravity Challenge. With average speeds of 18 ms-1 (40 mph) from a standing start along the 0.7 mile course and maximum speeds of around 27 ms-1 (60 mph), the aerodynamic contribution to performance is significant. This paper discusses the aerodynamic considerations given to the design of the leading Soapboxes and to the racing conditions experienced. Analysis and test techniques which may also be employed are also described.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Control Design of a SOFC-IC Engine Hybrid System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0082
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

2008-04-14
2008-01-0634
A qualitative FMEA study of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) technology is established and presented in the current work through a literature survey of mechanisms that govern performance degradation and failure. The literature findings are translated into Fault Tree (FT) diagrams that depict how basic events can develop into performance degradation or failure in the context of the following top events; (1) activation losses; (2) mass transportation losses; (3) Ohmic losses; (4) efficiency losses and (5) catastrophic cell failure. Twenty-two identified faults and forty-seven frequent causes are translated into fifty-two basic events and a system of FTs with twenty-one reoccurring dominant mechanisms. The four most dominant mechanisms discussed that currently curtail sustained fuel cell performance relate to membrane durability, liquid water formation, flow-field design, and manufacturing practices.
Technical Paper

Top Fuel Dragster Powertrain Modelling

2008-12-02
2008-01-2958
Here we consider the construction of a model in the matlab/simulink environment that describes the dynamic processes occurring within the driveline of a Top Fuel Dragster. Particular emphasis is placed upon development of the model for aspects of powertrain performance that are unique to operation of a dragster. This includes clutch operation, tyre modelling including squat and growth and vertical load variation. The model predictions are compared to vehicle test data, and although predictions are not accurate clear similarities are seen. Hence a good basis for simulating the dragster has been produced but significant parameter tuning work is still required. The paper considers future enhancements to the model and methods for identifying model parameters, in order to further improve accuracy.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Structure Analysis by Particle Image Velocimetry Under Steady State Condition

2012-09-24
2012-01-1975
This paper deals with experimental investigations of the in-cylinder flow structures under steady state conditions utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments have been conducted on an engine head of a pent-roof type (Lotus) for a number of fixed valve lifts and different inlet valve configurations at two pressure drops, 250mm and 635mm of H2O that correlate with engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, a tumble flow analysis is carried out for six planes parallel to the cylinder axis. In addition, a swirl flow analysis is carried out for one horizontal plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at half bore downstream from the cylinder head (44mm). The results show the advantage of using the planar technique (PIV) for investigating the complete flow structures developed inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Fitted Piston Compression Ring: Modal Behaviour and Frictional Assessment

2011-05-17
2011-01-1535
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
Technical Paper

Towards an Open Source Model for Engine Control Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1711
Traditionally, university research in engine technology has been focused on fundamental engine phenomena. Increasingly however, research topics are developing in the form of systems issues. Examples include air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) management, after-treatment systems, engine cooling, hybrid systems and energy recovery. This trend leads to the need for engine research to be conducted using currently available products and components that are re-configured or incrementally improved to support a particular research investigation. A production engine will include an electronic control unit (ECU) that must be understood and utilised or simply removed and circumvented. In general the intellectual property (IP) limitations places on ECUs by their suppliers mean that they cannot be used. The supplier of the ECU is usually unable to reveal any detail of the implementation. As a consequence any research using production hardware is seriously disadvantaged from the beginning.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on A-pillar Airflow

2009-04-20
2009-01-0003
Various studies have shown that the level of wind noise experienced inside cars on the road in unsteady conditions can be substantially different from that measured in wind tunnel tests conducted using a low turbulence facility. In this paper a simple geometric body representing the cabin of a passenger car has been used to investigate the effects of free stream turbulence, (FST), on the A-pillar vortex flowfield and the side glass pressure distribution. Beneath the A-pillar vortex, both mean and dynamic pressures are increased by FST. The unsteady pressure can be associated with wind noise and the flow visualization shows the peak unsteadiness is related to the separation of the secondary vortex.
Technical Paper

On the Optimisation of Road Vehicle Leading Edge Radius in Varying Levels of Freestream Turbulence

2006-04-03
2006-01-1029
It has been recognised that the ideal flow conditions that exist in the modern automotive wind tunnel do not accurately simulate the environment experienced by vehicles on the road. This paper investigates the effect of varying one flow parameter, freestream turbulence, and a single shape parameter, leading edge radius, on aerodynamic drag. The tests were carried out at model scale in the Loughborough University Wind Tunnel, using a very simple 2-box shape, and in the MIRA Full Scale Wind Tunnel using the MIRA squareback Reference Car. Turbulence intensities up to 5% were generated by grids and had a strong effect on transcritical Reynolds number and Reynolds sensitivity at both model scale and full scale. There was a good correlation between the results in both tunnels.
Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Thermal State of Generators On-Board UAVs

2013-09-17
2013-01-2251
On future Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) it is envisaged that the power requirements of all on-board electrical systems will increase. Whilst, in most flight (mission) situations the installed generation capacity will have adequate capacity to operate the systems, it is possible that during certain abnormal situations the generators on-board may be forced to operate under very high load conditions. The main failure mechanism for a generator is overheating and subsequent disintegration of windings, hence the research problem being addressed here is that of modelling the thermal dynamics of a generator in such a way that the model can be used to predict future temperatures given knowledge of the future mission requirements. The temperature predictions will be used to allow prioritising of the mission actions in order to allow maximum utilisation of power generation capacity without overheating.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

Benefits of Stochastic Optimisation with Grid Price Prediction for Electric Vehicle Charging

2017-03-28
2017-01-1701
The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
Technical Paper

Managing Loads on Aircraft Generators to Prevent Overheat In-Flight

2014-09-16
2014-01-2195
On future UAVs it is envisaged that the power requirements of all on-board electrical systems will increase. In most flight (mission) situations the installed power generation will have adequate capacity to operate the aircraft. It is possible that during abnormal situations such as coolant blockage the generators on-board may be forced to operate under very high load conditions. The main failure mechanism for a generator is overheating and subsequent disintegration of windings, hence the research problem being addressed here is to manage the loads upon the generator to prevent overheats. The research presented here summarizes the modeling of the generator and formation of the load management system. Results are presented showing the system reallocating loads after a fault during flight, preventing overheat of the generators and successfully completing the mission.
Technical Paper

A Low Order Model of SCR-in-DPF Systems with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0953
This paper presents a method to achieve a low order system model of the urea-based SCR catalyst coated filter (SCR-in-DPF or SCRF or SDPF), while preserving a high degree of fidelity. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), also known as principal component analysis (PCA), or Karhunen-Loéve decomposition (KLD), is a statistical method which achieves model order reduction by extracting the dominant characteristic modes of the system and devises a low-dimensional approximation on that basis. The motivation for using the POD approach is that the low-order model directly derives from the high-fidelity model (or experimental data) thereby retains the physics of the system. POD, with Galerkin projection, is applied to the 1D + 1D SCR-in-DPF model using ammonia surface coverage and wall temperature as the dominant system states to achieve model order reduction.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Debris on an Inverted Double Wing in Ground Effect

2018-04-03
2018-01-0726
Cars in several motor sports series, such as Formula 1, make use of multi-element front wings to provide downforce. These wings also provide onset flows to other surfaces that generate downforce. These elements are highly loaded to maximise their performance and are generally operating close to stall. Rubber debris, often known as marbles, created from the high slip experienced by the soft compound tyres can become lodged in the multiple elements of a front wing. This will lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of the wing over the course of a race. This work will study the effect of such debris, both experimentally and numerically, on an inverted double element wing in ground effect at representative Reynolds numbers. The wing was mounted at two different ride heights above a fixed false-floor in the Loughborough University wind tunnel and the effect of debris blockage modelled by closing sections of the gap between elements with tape.
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